... condition. The condition requires one statistic from the sample: the kurtosis K4. The sample kurtosis detects the presence of skewness as well as outliers. If the data are normally distributed, then K4 ≈ 0. Large, positive values of K4 indicate that data are not normally distributed. K4 is calculated from the z-scores of the sample, zi=(xix¯)/s.

As an example, consider the HALT scores of a sample of 20 ...

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