Now that probability has been defined and some rules of probability have been illustrated, a variable of interest that has many different outcomes can be studied. Consider the number of defective transactions that can occur in three independent transactions, where the probability of a defective transaction is 0.5. This example assumes that, based on past history, you know that each time a transaction takes place, the result (defective or not defective) is independent of any other transaction, and the probability of defective transaction on any randomly selected transaction is 0.50.

The possible outcomes that can occur in terms of the number of defective transactions are shown in Table 5.1.

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