Strategic Brand Management, Fourth Edition

Book Description

Create profitable brand strategies by building, measuring, and managing brand equity

Kevin Lane Keller is recognized as one of the international leaders in the study of strategic brand management and integrated marketing communications. In Strategic Brand Management: Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity, 4th Edition Keller looks at branding from the perspective of the consumer, and provides a framework that helps students and managers identify, define, and measure brand equity. Using insight from both academics and industry practitioners, the text draws on illustrative examples and case studies of brands marketed in the US and all over the world.

Table of Contents

  1. Strategic Brand ManagementBuilding, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity
  2. Strategic Brand ManagementBuilding, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity
  3. Brief Contents
  4. Contents
  5. Prologue: Branding Is Not Rocket Science
  6. Preface
    1. What Is the Book About?
    2. What’s Different about This Book?
    3. Who Should Read the Book?
    4. How Is the Book Organized?
    5. Revision Strategy for Fourth Edition
    6. How Can You Get the Most out of the Book?
    7. Faculty Resources
  7. About the Author
  8. Part I Opening Perspectives
    1. 1 Brands and Brand Management
      1. Learning Objectives
      2. Preview
      3. What is a Brand?
        1. Brand Elements
        2. Brands versus Products
      4. Why Do Brands Matter?
        1. Consumers
        2. Firms
      5. Can Anything Be Branded?
        1. Physical Goods
          1. Business-to-business products
            1. Cisco
          2. High-tech Products
            1. Intuit
        2. Services
          1. Role of Branding with Services
          2. Professional Services
        3. Retailers and Distributors
        4. Online Products and Services
          1. Google
        5. People and Organizations
          1. Rachael Ray
          2. UNICEF
        6. Sports, Arts, and Entertainment
          1. Harry Potter
        7. Geographic Locations
        8. Ideas and Causes
      6. What are the Strongest Brands?
      7. Branding Challenges and Opportunities
        1. Savvy Customers
          1. Converse
        2. Economic Downturns
        3. Brand Proliferation
          1. Explore the Upside of Actually Increasing Investment
          2. Now, More Than Ever, Get Closer to Your Consumer
          3. Rethink How You Spend Your Money
          4. Put Forth the Most Compelling Value Proposition
          5. Fine-Tune Your Brand and Product Offerings
        4. Media Transformation
          1. Old Spice
        5. Increased Competition
        6. Increased Costs
        7. Greater Accountability
      8. The Brand Equity Concept
      9. Strategic Brand Management Process
        1. Identifying and Developing Brand Plans
        2. Designing and Implementing Brand Marketing Programs
          1. Choosing Brand Elements
          2. Integrating the Brand into Marketing Activities and the Supporting Marketing Program
          3. Leveraging Secondary Associations
        3. Measuring and Interpreting Brand Performance
        4. Growing and Sustaining Brand Equity
          1. Defining Brand Architecture
          2. Managing Brand Equity over Time
          3. Managing Brand Equity over Geographic Boundaries, Cultures, and Market Segments
      10. Review
      11. Discussion Questions
        1. Early Origins: Before 1860
        2. Emergence of National Manufacturer Brands: 1860 to 1914
        3. Dominance of Mass Marketed Brands: 1915 to 1929
        4. Challenges to Manufacturer Brands: 1930 to 1945
        5. Establishment of Brand Management Standards: 1946 to 1985
        6. Branding Becomes More Pervasive: 1986 to Now
          1. The Pharmaceutical Industry
  9. Part II Developing a Brand Strategy
    1. 2 Customer-Based Brand Equity and Brand Positioning
      1. Learning Objectives
      2. Preview
      3. Customer-Based Brand Equity
        1. Defining Customer-Based Brand Equity
        2. Brand Equity as a Bridge
          1. Brands as a Reflection of the Past
            1. SNICKERS® Brand
          2. Brands as a Direction for the Future
            1. DISCOVERY CHANNEL
      4. Making a Brand Strong: Brand Knowledge
      5. Sources of Brand Equity
        1. Brand Awareness
          1. Advantages of Brand Awareness
          2. Establishing Brand Awareness
            1. Gannett
        2. Brand Image
          1. ALLY FINANCIAL
          2. The Body Shop
          3. Strength of Brand Associations
          4. Favorability of Brand Associations
          5. Uniqueness of Brand Associations
      6. Identifying and Establishing Brand Positioning
        1. Basic Concepts
        2. Target Market
          1. Segmentation Bases
          2. Criteria
        3. Nature of Competition
          1. Indirect Competition
          2. Multiple Frames of Reference
        4. Points-of-Parity and Points-of-Difference
          1. Points-of-Difference Associations
            1. Subaru
          2. Points-of-Parity Associations
            1. Category points-of-parity
            2. Competitive points-of-parity
            3. Correlational points-of-parity
          3. Points-of-Parity versus Points-of-Difference
      7. Positioning Guidelines
        1. Defining and Communicating the Competitive Frame of Reference
          1. Freeline Skates
          2. Communicating Category Benefits
          3. Exemplars
          4. Product Descriptor
        2. Choosing Points-of-Difference
          1. Desirability Criteria
          2. Deliverability Criteria
          3. Differentiation Criteria
        3. Establishing Points-of-Parity and Points-of-Difference
          1. Separate the Attributes
          2. Leverage Equity of Another Entity
            1. Miller Lite
          3. Redefine the Relationship
            1. Apple
        4. Straddle Positions
          1. BMW
        5. Updating Positioning over Time
          1. Laddering
          2. Reacting
        6. Developing a Good Positioning
      8. Defining A Brand Mantra
        1. Brand Mantras
          1. Designing a Brand Mantra
          2. Implementing a Brand Mantra
      9. Review
      10. Discussion Questions
        1. Brand Focus 2.0 The Marketing Advantages of Strong Brands
          1. Greater Loyalty and Less Vulnerability to Competitive Marketing Actions and Crises
          2. Larger Margins
          3. Greater Trade Cooperation and Support
          4. Increased Marketing Communication Effectiveness
          5. Possible Licensing and Brand Extension Opportunities
          6. Other Benefits
    2. 3 Brand Resonance and the Brand Value Chain
      1. Learning Objectives
      2. Preview
      3. Building A Strong Brand: The Four Steps of Brand Building
        1. Brand Salience
          1. Breadth and Depth of Awareness
            1. Tropicana
          2. Product Category Structure
          3. Strategic Implications
            1. Campbell’s Soup
          4. Summary
        2. Brand Performance
          1. Subway
        3. Brand Imagery
          1. User Imagery
          2. Purchase and Usage Imagery
          3. Brand Personality and Values
            1. Chrysler
          4. Brand History, Heritage, and Experiences
          5. Summary
        4. Brand Judgments
          1. Brand Quality
          2. Brand Credibility
            1. FedEx
          3. Brand Consideration
          4. Brand Superiority
        5. Brand Feelings
          1. W Hotels
          2. Summary
        6. Brand Resonance
          1. Behavioral Loyalty
          2. Attitudinal Attachment
          3. Sense of Community
          4. Active Engagement
            1. BMW
            2. Apple
            3. Harley-Davidson
            4. Jeep
          5. Summary
        7. Brand-Building Implications
          1. Customers Own the Brands
          2. Don’t Take Shortcuts with Brands
          3. Brands Should Have a Duality
            1. Mastercard
          4. Brands Should Have Richness
          5. Brand Resonance Provides Important Focus
            1. Shutterfly
      4. The Brand Value Chain
        1. Value Stages
          1. Marketing Program Investment
          2. Program Quality Multiplier
          3. Customer Mind-Set
          4. Marketplace Conditions Multiplier
          5. Market Performance
          6. Investor Sentiment Multiplier
          7. Shareholder Value
        2. Implications
      5. Review
      6. Discussion Questions
        1. Volkswagen
        2. Customer Equity
          1. Blattberg and Colleagues.
          2. Rust, Zeithaml, and Lemon.
          3. Kumar and Colleagues.
          4. Relationship of Customer Equity to Brand Equity.
          5. Differences Between the Two Points of View.
          6. Reconciling the Two Points of View.
  10. Part III Designing and Implementing Brand Marketing Programs
    1. 4 Choosing Brand Elements to Build Brand Equity
      1. Learning Objectives
      2. Preview
      3. Criteria for Choosing Brand Elements
        1. Memorability
        2. Meaningfulness
        3. Likability
          1. M&M’S® Brand Chocolate Candies
        4. Transferability
        5. Adaptability
          1. Michelin Man
        6. Protectability
      4. Options and Tactics for Brand Elements
        1. Brand Names
          1. Naming Guidelines
            1. Brand Awareness
            2. Simplicity and Ease of Pronunciation and Spelling
            3. Familiarity and Meaningfulness
            4. Differentiated, Distinctive, and Unique
            5. Brand Associations
              1. Colgate Wisp
          2. Naming Procedures
            1. Jetblue
        2. URLs
        3. Logos and Symbols
          1. Benefits
        4. Characters
          1. Green Giant
          2. Benefits
          3. Cautions
            1. Eveready
        5. Slogans
          1. Benefits
            1. HBO
          2. Designing Slogans
          3. Updating Slogans
        6. Jingles
        7. Packaging
          1. Benefits
            1. 100-Calorie Packs
          2. Packaging at the Point of Purchase
          3. Packaging Innovations
          4. Package Design
          5. Packaging Changes
      5. Putting it All Together
        1. Tropicana.
        2. The Gap.
        3. Gatorade & Pepsi.
        4. Lessons.
        5. Packaging Can Influence Taste
        6. Packaging Can Influence Value
        7. Packaging Can Influence Consumption
        8. Packaging Can Influence How a Person Uses a Product
        9. Method
      6. Review
      7. Discussion Questions
        1. Counterfeit and Imitator Brands
        2. Historical and Legal Precedence
        3. Trademark Issues Concerning Names
        4. Trademark Issues Concerning Packaging
    2. 5 Designing Marketing Programs to Build Brand Equity
      1. Learning Objectives
      2. Preview
      3. New Perspectives on Marketing
        1. CLIF Bar
      4. Integrating Marketing
        1. Moosejaw Mountaineering
        2. Personalizing Marketing
          1. Experiential Marketing
          2. Relationship Marketing
            1. Mass Customization
            2. One-to-One Marketing
              1. Tesco
            3. Permission Marketing
              1. Amazon
        3. Reconciling the Different Marketing Approaches
      5. Product Strategy
        1. Perceived Quality
        2. Aftermarketing
          1. User Manuals
          2. Customer Service Programs
          3. Loyalty Programs
            1. American Airlines
        3. Summary
          1. CVS
      6. Pricing Strategy
        1. Consumer Price Perceptions
        2. Setting Prices to Build Brand Equity
          1. Value Pricing
            1. Hyundai
            2. Product Design and Delivery
            3. Product Costs
            4. Product Prices
            5. Communicating Value
          2. Price Segmentation
          3. Everyday Low Pricing
            1. The P&G Experience
            2. Reasons for Price Stability
        3. Summary
      7. Channel Strategy
        1. Channel Design
          1. Tupperware
        2. Indirect Channels
          1. Push and Pull Strategies
            1. Vlasic
          2. Channel Support
            1. John Deere
            2. Retail Segmentation
            3. Cooperative Advertising
          3. Summary
        3. Direct Channels
          1. Company-Owned Stores
            1. Pop-Up Stores
          2. Store-Within-a-Store
          3. Other Means
        4. Online Strategies
        5. Summary
      8. Review
      9. Discussion Questions
        1. Private Labels
        2. Private-Label Status
        3. Private-Label Branding Strategy
          1. Loblaws
        4. Major Brand Response to Private Labels
          1. Kleenex
        5. Future Developments
    3. 6 Integrating Marketing Communications to Build Brand Equity
      1. Learning Objectives
      2. Preview
      3. The New Media Environment
        1. Fiesta
        2. Challenges in Designing Brand-Building Communications
          1. Information Processing Model of Communications
        3. Role of Multiple Communications
      4. Four Major Marketing Communication Options
        1. Advertising
          1. Television
            1. Pros & Cons
              1. Apple
            2. Guidelines. 
              1. Snickers® Brand
              2. Seinfeld
            3. Future Prospects. 
          2. Radio
            1. Motel 6
          3. Print
            1. Pros & Cons. 
              1. Absolut
            2. Guidelines. 
          4. Direct Response
            1. Guidelines. 
          5. Place
            1. Billboards and Posters. 
            2. Movies, Airlines, Lounges, and Other Places. 
            3. Product Placement. 
            4. Point of Purchase. 
            5. Guidelines. 
        2. Promotion
          1. Consumer Promotions
            1. Walgreens
            2. Groupon
          2. Trade Promotions
        3. Online Marketing Communications
          1. Web Sites
          2. Online Ads and Videos
            1. Coke’s “Happiness Machine”
          3. Social Media
          4. Putting It All Together
        4. Events and Experiences
          1. Rationale
          2. Guidelines
            1. Choosing Sponsorship Opportunities. 
            2. Designing Sponsorship Programs. 
            3. Measuring Sponsorship Activities. 
              1. Nationwide
        5. Mobile Marketing
          1. Foursquare
      5. Brand Amplifiers
        1. Public Relations and Publicity
        2. Word-of-Mouth
          1. Tremor
      6. Developing Integrated Marketing Communication Programs
        1. Criteria for IMC Programs
          1. Coverage
          2. Contribution
          3. Commonality
          4. Complementarity
          5. Conformability
          6. Cost
        2. Using IMC Choice Criteria
          1. Strategies to Strengthen Communication Effects
          2. Brand Signatures
          3. Ad Retrieval Cues
          4. Media Interactions
          5. Evaluating Communication Options
          6. Establishing Priorities and Trade-Offs
      7. Review
      8. Discussion Questions
        1. Roi
        2. 360-Degree Media Planning
        3. Value of TV
        4. Creative Quality
    4. 7 Leveraging Secondary Brand Associations to Build Brand Equity
      1. Learning Objectives
      2. Preview
      3. Conceptualizing the Leveraging Process
        1. Creation of New Brand Associations
        2. Effects on Existing Brand Knowledge
        3. Guidelines
      4. Company
        1. Blue Moon
      5. Country of Origin and Other Geographic Areas
        1. Brand America
      6. Channels of Distribution
      7. Co-Branding
        1. Access
        2. Store Atmosphere
        3. Price and Promotion
        4. Cross-Category Assortment
        5. Within-Category Assortment
        6. Guidelines
          1. Smart Car
        7. Ingredient Branding
          1. Co-Branding
          2. Ingredient Branding
          3. Singapore Airlines
          4. Advantages and Disadvantages
          5. Guidelines
      8. Licensing
        1. Disney Consumer Products
        2. Guidelines
      9. Celebrity Endorsement
        1. Oprah Winfrey
        2. Potential Problems
        3. Guidelines
          1. Q Scores
      10. Sporting, Cultural, or Other Events
        1. Pepsico
      11. Third-Party Sources
        1. Grey Goose
      12. Review
      13. Discussion Questions
        1. Corporate Sponsorship
        2. Sponsorship ROI
        3. Ambush Marketing
        4. Beijing 2008 Summer Games
        5. London 2012 Summer Games
        6. City and Country Effects
        7. Summary
  11. Part IV Measuring and Interpreting Brand Performance
    1. 8 Developing a Brand Equity Measurement and Management System
      1. Learning Objectives
      2. Preview
      3. The New Accountability
      4. Conducting Brand Audits
        1. Domino’s Pizza
        2. Brand Inventory
          1. Rationale
        3. Brand Exploratory
          1. Preliminary Activities
          2. Interpreting Qualitative Research
            1. Criteria
            2. Mental Maps and Core Brand Associations
          3. Conducting Quantitative Research
        4. Brand Positioning and the Supporting Marketing Program
      5. Designing Brand Tracking Studies
        1. What to Track
          1. Product–Brand Tracking
          2. Corporate or Family Brand Tracking
            1. Brand Awareness and Usage
            2. Brand Judgments
            3. Brand Performance
            4. Brand Imagery
            5. Brand Feelings
            6. Brand Resonance
          3. Global Tracking
        2. How to Conduct Tracking Studies
          1. Whom to Track
          2. When and Where to Track
            1. Millward Brown
        3. How to Interpret Tracking Studies
      6. Establishing A Brand Equity Management System
        1. Brand Charter
        2. Brand Equity Report
          1. Contents
          2. Dashboards
        3. Brand Equity Responsibilities
          1. Overseeing Brand Equity
          2. Organizational Design and Structures
          3. Managing Marketing Partners
      7. Review
      8. Discussion Questions
        1. Background
          1. History
          2. Private Ownership
          3. Brand Portfolio
        2. Brand Inventory
          1. Brand Elements
          2. Product
          3. Pricing
          4. Distribution
          5. Communications
            1. Advertising.
            2. Ambassadors.
            3. Sports and Culture.
            4. Philanthropy.
        3. Brand Exploratory
          1. Consumer Knowledge
          2. Brand Resonance Pyramid
          3. Competitive Analysis
            1. TAG Heuer.
            2. OMEGA.
            3. Patek Philippe.
        4. Strategic Recommendations
          1. Positioning
            1. Points-of-Parity
            2. Points-of-Difference.
            3. Brand Mantra.
        5. Tactical Recommendations
          1. Leverage the Company’s Independent, Continuous Heritage and Focus
          2. Leverage the Company’s Elite Craftsmanship and Innovation
          3. Connect with the Female Consumer
          4. Attack the Online Counterfeit Industry
          5. Use Marketing to Reach Younger Consumers
          6. Communicate Long-Term Value
    2. 9 Measuring Sources of Brand Equity: Capturing Customer Mind-Set
      1. Learning Objectives
      2. Preview
      3. Qualitative Research Techniques
        1. Free Association
          1. Guidelines
        2. Projective Techniques
          1. Completion and Interpretation Tasks
          2. Comparison Tasks
          3. Archetypes
        3. Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique
        4. Neural Research Methods
        5. Brand Personality and Values
          1. The Big Five
        6. Ethnographic and Experiential Methods
          1. Hewlett-Packard (HP)
          2. Burton Snowboards
        7. Summary
      4. Quantitative Research Techniques
        1. Brand Awareness
          1. Recognition
          2. Recall
          3. Corrections for Guessing
          4. Strategic Implications
        2. Brand Image
          1. Other Approaches
        3. Brand Responses
          1. Purchase Intentions
          2. Likelihood to Recommend
        4. Brand Relationships
          1. Behavioral Loyalty
          2. Attitudinal Attachment
          3. Sense of Community
          4. Active Engagement
          5. Fournier’s Brand Relationship Research
      5. Comprehensive Models of Consumer-Based Brand Equity
        1. BrandDynamics
        2. Relationship to the CBBE Model
      6. Review
      7. Discussion Questions
        1. Four Pillars
        2. Relationship Among the Pillars
        3. The Powergrid
        4. Applying Bav to Google
        5. Competitive Advantages on Brand Attributes
        6. Successful Category Extensions
        7. Successful Global Expansion
        8. Summary
    3. 10 Measuring Outcomes of Brand Equity: Capturing Market Performance
      1. Learning Objectives
      2. Preview
      3. Comparative Methods
        1. Brand-Based Comparative Approaches
          1. Applications
            1. T-Mobile
          2. Critique
        2. Marketing-Based Comparative Approaches
          1. Applications
          2. Critique
        3. Conjoint Analysis
          1. Applications
          2. Critique
      4. Holistic Methods
        1. Liz Claiborne
        2. Residual Approaches
          1. Scanner Panel
          2. Choice Experiments
          3. Multi-Attribute Attitude Models
          4. Critique
        3. Valuation Approaches
          1. Coca-Cola Brand Valuation
          2. Accounting Background
          3. Historical Perspectives
          4. General Approaches
          5. Simon and Sullivan’s Brand Equity Value
            1. 1. Finance
            2. 2. Brand Contribution
            3. 3. Category Expected Life
            4. 4. Brand Knowledge Structure (BKS)
              1. The Valuation
              2. Key Differences
          6. Interbrand’s Brand Valuation Methodology
            1. Brand Financial Performance
            2. Role of Brand
            3. Brand Strength
          7. Summary
      5. Review
      6. Discussion Questions
        1. Stock Market Reactions
          1. Brand Equity.
          2. Marketing Activities.
        2. Accounting Perspectives on Brands58
          1. IFRS 3 Business Combinations.
          2. IAS 38 Intangible Assets.
          3. IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement.
          4. IFRS 36 Impairment of Assets.
  12. Part V Growing and Sustaining Brand Equity
    1. 11 Designing and Implementing Brand Architecture Strategies
      1. Learning Objectives
      2. Preview
      3. Developing a Brand Architecture Strategy
        1. Step 1: Defining Brand Potential
          1. Articulating the Brand Vision
            1. Crayola
          2. Defining the Brand Boundaries
            1. VW Phaeton
            2. Processes Affecting Long-Term Brand Value
              1. Brand Vision.
              2. Brand Actualization.
            3. Components of Long-Term Brand Value
              1. Brand Persistence
              2. Brand Growth.
            4. Factors Influencing Brand Persistence and Growth
              1. Risks in the Marketing Environment.
              2. Firm Behaviors.
            5. A Key Implication
          3. Crafting the Brand Positioning
        2. Step 2: Identifying Brand Extension Opportunities
        3. Step 3: Branding New Products and Services
        4. Summary
      4. Brand Portfolios
        1. Flankers
        2. Cash Cows
        3. Low-End, Entry-Level or High-End, Prestige Brands
        4. Summary
      5. Brand Hierarchies
        1. Levels of a Brand Hierarchy
          1. Corporate or Company Brand Level
          2. Family Brand Level
          3. Individual Brand Level
          4. Modifier Level
          5. Product Descriptor
        2. Designing a Brand Hierarchy
          1. Specific Products to Introduce
          2. Number of Levels of the Brand Hierarchy
            1. Gatorade
            2. Acura
          3. Desired Awareness and Image at Each Hierarchy Level
          4. Combining Brand Elements from Different Levels
            1. Principle of Prominence
            2. Branding Strategy Screen
          5. Linking Brand Elements to Multiple Products
      6. Corporate Branding
        1. Corporate Image Dimensions
          1. Common Product Attributes, Benefits, or Attitudes
          2. People and Relationships
          3. Values and Programs
            1. British Airways
          4. Corporate Credibility
            1. L.L. Bean
          5. Summary
        2. Managing the Corporate Brand
          1. Corporate Social Responsibility
            1. Toms Shoes
          2. Corporate Image Campaigns
            1. Philips
            2. UBS
            3. General Mills
          3. Corporate Name Changes
            1. Rationale
              1. Boloco
            2. Guidelines
      7. Brand Architecture Guidelines
      8. Review
      9. Discussion Questions
        1. Advantages of Cause Marketing
        2. Designing Cause-Marketing Programs
        3. Green Marketing
          1. GE
          2. Overexposure and Lack of Credibility.
          3. Consumer Behavior.
          4. Poor Implementation.
          5. Possible Solutions.
    2. 12 Introducing and Naming New Products and Brand Extensions
      1. Learning Objectives
      2. Preview
      3. New Products and Brand Extensions
        1. Chobani
        2. Market Penetration
        3. Market Development
        4. Product Development
        5. Diversification
      4. Advantages of Extensions
        1. Facilitate New-Product Acceptance
          1. Improve Brand Image
          2. Reduce Risk Perceived by Customers
          3. Increase the Probability of Gaining Distribution and Trial
          4. Increase Efficiency of Promotional Expenditures
          5. Reduce Costs of Introductory and Follow-Up Marketing Programs
          6. Avoid Cost of Developing a New Brand
          7. Allow for Packaging and Labeling Efficiencies
          8. Permit Consumer Variety-Seeking
            1. L’OrÉal
        2. Provide Feedback Benefits to the Parent Brand
          1. Clarify Brand Meaning
          2. Enhance the Parent Brand Image
          3. Bring New Customers into the Brand Franchise and Increase Market Coverage
            1. Ocean Spray
          4. Revitalize the Brand
          5. Permit Subsequent Extensions
            1. Billabong
      5. Disadvantages of Brand Extensions
        1. Can Confuse or Frustrate Consumers
        2. Can Encounter Retailer Resistance
        3. Can Fail and Hurt Parent Brand Image
          1. Audi
        4. Can Succeed but Cannibalize Sales of Parent Brand
        5. Can Succeed but Diminish Identification with Any One Category
        6. Can Succeed but Hurt the Image of the Parent Brand
        7. Can Dilute Brand Meaning
          1. Gucci
        8. Can Cause the Company to Forgo the Chance to Develop a New Brand
          1. Kindle
      6. Understanding How Consumers Evaluate Brand Extensions
        1. Managerial Assumptions
        2. Brand Extensions and Brand Equity
          1. Creating Extension Equity
          2. Contributing to Parent Brand Equity
            1. Michelin
        3. Vertical Brand Extensions
          1. Pros and Cons
          2. Examples
          3. Naming Strategies
      7. Evaluating Brand Extension Opportunities
        1. Define Actual and Desired Consumer Knowledge about the Brand
        2. Identify Possible Extension Candidates
        3. Evaluate the Potential of the Extension Candidate
          1. Consumer Factors
            1. BIC
          2. Corporate and Competitive Factors
          3. Category Factors
        4. Design Marketing Programs to Launch Extension
          1. Choosing Brand Elements
          2. Designing Optimal Marketing Program
          3. Leveraging Secondary Brand Associations
        5. Evaluate Extension Success and Effects on Parent Brand Equity
      8. Extension Guidelines Based on Academic Research
        1. Clorox
        2. Levi’s Tailored Classics
      9. Review
      10. Discussion Questions
    3. 13 Managing Brands Over Time
      1. Learning Objectives
      2. Preview
      3. Reinforcing Brands
        1. Coldplay
        2. Maintaining Brand Consistency
          1. Market Leaders and Failures
            1. Delta
            2. Michelob
          2. Consistency and Change
        3. Protecting Sources of Brand Equity
          1. Intel
        4. Fortifying versus Leveraging
          1. Wonder Bread
        5. Fine-Tuning the Supporting Marketing Program
          1. Product-Related Performance Associations
            1. Timex
          2. Non-Product-Related Imagery Associations
            1. MTV
          3. Summary
      4. Revitalizing Brands
        1. Lacoste
        2. Febreze
        3. Expanding Brand Awareness
          1. Identifying Additional or New Usage Opportunities
          2. Identifying New and Completely Different Ways to Use the Brand
            1. Coach
        4. Improving Brand Image
          1. Identifying the Target Market
            1. Tommy Hilfiger
          2. Repositioning the Brand
          3. Changing Brand Elements
      5. Adjustments to the Brand Portfolio
        1. Migration Strategies
        2. Acquiring New Customers
        3. Retiring Brands
          1. Obsoleting Existing Products
      6. Review
      7. Discussion Questions
        1. The Tylenol Product Tampering Crisis
        2. The Tylenol Product Tampering Recovery
        3. Tylenol’s Quality Control Crises
        4. Crisis Marketing Guidelines
          1. Swiftness.
          2. Sincerity.
    4. 14 Managing Brands Over Geographic Boundaries and Market Segments
      1. Learning Objectives
      2. Preview
      3. Regional Market Segments
        1. Macy’s
      4. Other Demographic and Cultural Segments
      5. Rationale for Going International
        1. Oreo
      6. Advantages of Global Marketing Programs
        1. Economies of Scale in Production and Distribution
        2. Lower Marketing Costs
        3. Power and Scope
        4. Consistency in Brand Image
        5. Ability to Leverage Good Ideas Quickly and Efficiently
        6. Uniformity of Marketing Practices
          1. Mastercard
      7. Disadvantages of Global Marketing Programs
        1. Differences in Consumer Needs, Wants, and Usage Patterns for Products
        2. Differences in Consumer Response to Branding Elements
        3. Differences in Consumer Responses to Marketing Mix Elements
        4. Differences in Brand and Product Development and the Competitive Environment
        5. Differences in the Legal Environment
        6. Differences in Marketing Institutions
        7. Differences in Administrative Procedures
      8. Global Brand Strategy
        1. Global Brand Equity
          1. Creating Brand Salience
            1. Nivea
          2. Crafting Brand Image
          3. Eliciting Brand Responses
          4. Cultivating Resonance
        2. Global Brand Positioning
      9. Standardization Versus Customization
        1. Standardization and Customization
          1. Product Strategy
          2. Communication Strategy
            1. Johnnie Walker
          3. Distribution Strategy
            1. Dell
          4. Pricing Strategy
      10. Developing versus Developed Markets
        1. Winning in India
      11. Building Global Customer-Based Brand Equity
        1. 1. Understand Similarities and Differences in the Global Branding Landscape
          1. Snuggle
        2. 2. Don’t Take Shortcuts in Brand Building
          1. Kellogg
        3. 3. Establish Marketing Infrastructure
        4. 4. Embrace Integrated Marketing Communications
          1. DHL
        5. 5. Cultivate Brand Partnerships
        6. 6. Balance Standardization and Customization
        7. 7. Balance Global and Local Control
        8. 8. Establish Operable Guidelines
          1. Colgate-Palmolive
        9. 9. Implement a Global Brand Equity Measurement System
          1. Levi Strauss
        10. 10. Leverage Brand Elements
          1. Marlboro
      12. Review
      13. Discussion Questions
        1. Growth at Home
        2. A Growing Consumer Class
        3. Foreign Interest
          1. KFC
        4. Emerging Local Leaders
          1. Chinese Internet Brands
        5. Locals Going Global
  13. Part VI Closing Perspectives
    1. 15 Closing Observations
      1. Learning Objectives
      2. Preview
      3. Strategic Brand Management Guidelines
        1. Summary of Customer-Based Brand Equity Framework
          1. Sources of Brand Equity
          2. Outcomes of Brand Equity
        2. Tactical Guidelines
          1. Building Brand Equity
            1. Themes
          2. Measuring Brand Equity
            1. Themes
          3. Managing Brand Equity
            1. Themes
      4. What Makes a Strong Brand?
      5. Future Brand Priorities
        1. 1. Fully and Accurately Factor the Consumer into the Branding Equation
          1. Renewed Emphasis on R&D
          2. New Communication Approaches
          3. Customer Diversity
            1. New Research Approaches
            2. New Branding Philosophy
          4. Customer Empowerment
        2. 2. Go Beyond Product Performance and Rational Benefits
        3. 3. Make the Whole of the Marketing Program Greater Than the Sum of the Parts
          1. Social Media
        4. 4. Understand Where You Can Take a Brand (and How)
          1. Brand Potential
          2. Brand Extensions
          3. Brand Elements
        5. 5. Do the “Right Thing” with Brands
          1. Cause Marketing
          2. Protecting Brand Equity
        6. 6. Take a Big Picture View of Branding Effects. Know What Is Working (and Why)
          1. Justifying Brand Investments
          2. Achieving Deeper Brand Understanding
        7. Finding the Branding Sweet Spot
          1. Brand Balance
          2. New Capabilities for Brand Marketers
      6. Review
      7. Discussion Questions
        1. Online
        2. Industrial and Business-to-Business Products
        3. High-Tech Products
        4. Services
        5. Retailers
        6. Small Businesses
  14. Epilogue
  15. Index
    1. A
    2. B
    3. C
    4. D
    5. E
    6. F
    7. G
    8. H
    9. I
    10. J
    11. K
    12. L
    13. M
    14. N
    15. O
    16. P
    17. Q
    18. R
    19. S
    20. T
    21. U
    22. V
    23. W
    24. X
    25. Y
    26. Z

Product Information

  • Title: Strategic Brand Management, Fourth Edition
  • Author(s): Kevin Lane Keller
  • Release date: July 2013
  • Publisher(s): Pearson
  • ISBN: 9780132664257