1. 1. R. T. Lenz, “Managing the Evolution of the Strategic Planning Process,” Business Horizons 30, no. 1 (January–February 1987): 37.

  2. 2. Robert Grant, “The Resource-Based Theory of Competitive Advantage: Implications for Strategy Formulation,” California Management Review (Spring 1991): 114.

  3. 3. Heinz Weihrich, “The TOWS Matrix: A Tool for Situational Analysis,” Long Range Planning 15, no. 2 (April 1982): 61. Note: Although Dr. Weihrich first modified SWOT analysis to form the TOWS matrix, the acronym SWOT is much more widely used than TOWS in practice. See also Marilyn Helms and Judy Nixon, “Exploring SWOT Analysis—Where Are We Now?” Journal of Strategy and Management 3, no. 3 (2010): 215–251.

  4. 4. Greg Dess, G. T. Lumpkin, and Alan Eisner, ...

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