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Structural Integrity and Durability of Advanced Composites

Book Description

Structural Integrity and Durability of Advanced Composites: Innovative Modelling Methods and Intelligent Design presents scientific and technological research from leading composite materials scientists and engineers that showcase the fundamental issues and practical problems that affect the development and exploitation of large composite structures.

As predicting precisely where cracks may develop in materials under stress is an age old mystery in the design and building of large-scale engineering structures, the burden of testing to provide "fracture safe design" is imperative. Readers will learn to transfer key ideas from research and development to both the design engineer and end-user of composite materials.

This comprehensive text provides the information users need to understand deformation and fracture phenomena resulting from impact, fatigue, creep, and stress corrosion cracking and how these phenomena can affect reliability, life expectancy, and the durability of structures.



  • Presents scientific and technological research from leading composite materials scientists and engineers that showcase fundamental issues and practical problems
  • Provides the information users need to understand deformation and fracture phenomena resulting from impact, fatigue, creep, and stress corrosion cracking
  • Enables readers to transfer key ideas from research and development to both the design engineer and end-user of composite materials

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Related titles
  5. Copyright
  6. List of contributors
  7. Woodhead Publishing Series in Composites Science and Engineering
  8. Dedication
  9. Editors’ Foreword
  10. Foreword by Tony Kelly
  11. Preface
  12. Part One. Multi-scale mechanics, physical modelling and damage analysis
    1. 1. Composite micromechanics: from carbon fibres to graphene
      1. 1.1. Introduction
      2. 1.2. Fibre reinforcement – theory
      3. 1.3. Fibre reinforcement – experiment
      4. 1.4. Nanoplatelet reinforcement – theory
      5. 1.5. Nanoplatelet reinforcement – experiment
      6. 1.6. Future trends and challenges
      7. 1.7. Sources of further information
    2. 2. A mechanisms-based framework for describing failure in composite materials
      1. 2.1. Introduction
      2. 2.2. Phenomenological failure theories
      3. 2.3. Mechanisms-based failure analysis
      4. 2.4. A comprehensive failure analysis strategy
      5. 2.5. Conclusions
    3. 3. The origins of residual stress and its evaluation in composite materials
      1. 3.1. Introduction
      2. 3.2. Origins of residual stress
      3. 3.3. Measurements and predictions
      4. 3.4. Effects and mitigations
      5. 3.5. Residual stresses in carbon-epoxy composites and typical material properties
      6. 3.6. Discussion
    4. 4. A multiscale synergistic damage mechanics approach for modeling progressive failure in composite laminates
      1. 4.1. Introduction
      2. 4.2. Continuum damage mechanics
      3. 4.3. Synergistic damage mechanics
      4. 4.4. Finite element (FE) implementation of synergistic damage mechanics (SDM) approach for structural analysis
      5. 4.5. Current issues and future trends
      6. 4.6. Sources of further information and advice
    5. 5. From micro to macro: simulating crack propagation in carbon fibre composites
      1. 5.1. Introduction
      2. 5.2. Overview of existing multi-scale modelling methods
      3. 5.3. Numerical crack models
      4. 5.4. Modelling of transverse crack growth in a carbon fibre-reinforced polymer ply
      5. 5.5. Conclusions and final remarks
    6. 6. Multi-scale modeling of high-temperature polymer matrix composites for aerospace applications
      1. 6.1. Introduction
      2. 6.2. DCB experiment
      3. 6.3. Viscoelastic cohesive layer model
      4. 6.4. Extraction of cohesive law from experimental data through J-integral
      5. 6.5. Evaluation of damage evolution law
      6. 6.6. Numerical results and discussion
      7. 6.7. Conclusions
    7. 7. Modeling of damage evaluation and failure of laminated composite materials across length scales
      1. 7.1. Introduction
      2. 7.2. Microdamage mechanisms in fiber-reinforced composites
      3. 7.3. Modeling microdefect evolution in a lamina and stiffness degradation of unidirectional composites
      4. 7.4. Modeling of stiffness degradation of laminated composite materials across length scales
      5. 7.5. Conclusions
  13. Part Two. Computational modelling, damage simulation and fatigue analysis
    1. 8. Computational techniques for simulation of damage and failure in composite materials
      1. 8.1. Introduction
      2. 8.2. Semi-numerical techniques
      3. 8.3. Meshless methods
      4. 8.4. Partition of unity methods
      5. 8.5. Multiscale and homogenisation
    2. 9. Damage evolution modelling in laminates
      1. 9.1. Introduction
      2. 9.2. Damage initiation and growth
      3. 9.3. Energy release rate-based analysis of intralaminar crack propagation
      4. 9.4. Summary
    3. 10. Virtual testing of impact in fiber reinforced laminates
      1. 10.1. Introduction
      2. 10.2. Mesomechanical modelling strategy of composite laminates
      3. 10.3. Use case 1: low-velocity impact due to drop weight
      4. 10.4. Use case 2: high-velocity impact
      5. 10.5. Conclusions and future trends
    4. 11. Mixed-mode fatigue of bonded joints in composites: experiments and modelling
      1. 11.1. Introduction
      2. 11.2. Materials and test equipment
      3. 11.3. Calculation of the strain energy release rate
      4. 11.4. Static test results
      5. 11.5. Damage evolution under cyclic loading
      6. 11.6. Analysis of damage mechanisms
      7. 11.7. A new criterion for crack propagation in bonded joints
      8. 11.8. Reanalysis of fatigue test results
      9. 11.9. Conclusions
    5. 12. A general and rigorous accelerated testing methodology for long-term life prediction of polymeric materials
      1. 12.1. Introduction
      2. 12.2. Time–temperature superposition principle
      3. 12.3. Advanced accelerated testing methodology
      4. 12.4. Experiments
      5. 12.5. Conclusions
    6. 13. Effects of environment on creep behavior of three oxide–oxide ceramic matrix composites at 1200 °C°C
      1. 13.1. Introduction
      2. 13.2. Experimental arrangements
      3. 13.3. Mechanical behavior – effects of environment
      4. 13.4. Composite microstructure
      5. 13.5. Concluding remarks
    7. 14. Anisotropic three-dimensional arrays of fibres
      1. 14.1. Introduction
      2. 14.2. Fibre reinforcements designed to resist shear of all orientations
  14. Part Three. Structural integrity
    1. 15. Structural integrity and the implementation of engineering composite materials
      1. 15.1. Introduction
      2. 15.2. Taking the long view
      3. 15.3. Fitness considerations for long-life implementation
      4. 15.4. The traditional approach to design
      5. 15.5. Evolution of mechanical design
      6. 15.6. Structural integrity and length scale
      7. 15.7. Structural integrity and multiscale modelling
      8. 15.8. At the heart of structural integrity
      9. 15.9. A guide to thinking and planning a physical model
      10. 15.10. Modelling structure that evolves with time
      11. 15.11. Designing against stress corrosion cracking
      12. 15.12. Multiscale modelling and computer simulation
      13. 15.13. Can non-destructive evaluation (NDE) detect defects in laminated structures and bonded structures?
      14. 15.14. The future looks bright
      15. 15.15. Final remarks
    2. 16. The control of the residual lifetimes of carbon fibre-reinforced composite pressure vessels
      1. 16.1. Introduction
      2. 16.2. Delayed fibre failures in carbon fibre composites
      3. 16.3. Development of models of damage accumulation in advanced composites
      4. 16.4. Comparison of results of modelling and observations using high-resolution tomography: validation of the model
      5. 16.5. Consequences of the model
      6. 16.6. Intrinsic limits based on component behaviour
      7. 16.7. Long-term failure probability
      8. 16.8. Conclusions
    3. 17. An extension of the point-stress criterion based on a coupled stress and energy fulfilment: application to the prediction of the open-hole tensile strength of a composite plate
      1. 17.1. Introduction
      2. 17.2. The coupled criterion
      3. 17.3. Isotropic plate
      4. 17.4. Orthotropic plate
      5. 17.5. Comparison with experimental data
      6. 17.6. Conclusions
    4. 18. Compressive fracture of layered composites caused by internal instability
      1. 18.1. Introduction
      2. 18.2. A unified computational approach to instability of periodic laminated materials
      3. 18.3. Application to the case of a stiffened panel with an open hole
      4. 18.4. Concluding remarks
    5. 19. Analysis of delamination in laminates with angle-ply matrix cracks: onset of damage and residual stiffness properties
      1. 19.1. Introduction
      2. 19.2. Residual stiffness of composite laminate with crack-induced delaminations
      3. 19.3. Delamination onset and growth prediction
      4. 19.4. Conclusions
    6. 20. Blast resistance of polymeric composite sandwich structures
      1. 20.1. Introduction
      2. 20.2. Literature review
      3. 20.3. Materials
      4. 20.4. Experimental
      5. 20.5. Instrumentation
      6. 20.6. Results
      7. 20.7. Discussion
      8. 20.8. Conclusion
    7. 21. Maintenance and monitoring of composite helicopter structures and materials
      1. 21.1. Introduction
      2. 21.2. Explanation of damage degradation modes
      3. 21.3. Maintenance of materials
      4. 21.4. SHM and NDI techniques
      5. 21.5. Future trends
      6. 21.6. Conclusions
  15. Part Four. Structural integrity of bonded and bolted joints
    1. 22. Dynamic fractures of adhesively bonded carbon fibre-reinforced polymeric joints
      1. 22.1. Introduction
      2. 22.2. Fatigue in adhesively bonded joints
      3. 22.3. Impact and impact fatigue
      4. 22.4. Fatigue crack growth in lap strap joint specimens
      5. 22.5. Modelling fatigue crack growth in bonded carbon fibre-reinforced polymeric lap strap joints
      6. 22.6. Conclusions
      7. 22.7. Future trends
    2. 23. Damage tolerance and survivability of composite aircraft structures
      1. 23.1. Introduction
      2. 23.2. Experimental methodology for evaluation of damage tolerance and survivability
      3. 23.3. Results: a case study
      4. 23.4. Result analysis and discussion
      5. 23.5. Conclusions
      6. 23.6. Sources of further information and advice
    3. 24. Computational and experimental study of composite scarf bonded joints
      1. 24.1. Introduction
      2. 24.2. Computational modeling of joint interface
      3. 24.3. Experimental study of joint interface
      4. 24.4. Improvement of interface strength
      5. 24.5. Conclusion
    4. 25. Composite bond inspection
      1. 25.1. What are the drivers for creating adhesively bonded aircraft structures?
      2. 25.2. Brief description of an adhesive bond and how it works: bulk properties, interphases, and interfaces
      3. 25.3. History of bonded aircraft construction
      4. 25.4. Composite versus metallic bonded structures
      5. 25.5. Composite bonding processes in aircraft manufacture
      6. 25.6. Bonding processes in composite aircraft repair
      7. 25.7. Control of bond quality
      8. 25.8. Defects in adhesive joints
      9. 25.9. Bond inspection tools
      10. 25.10. Proof testing
      11. 25.11. Conclusions
    5. 26. Tensile failure of composite scarf repair
      1. 26.1. Introduction
      2. 26.2. Experimentation
      3. 26.3. Modeling methodology
      4. 26.4. Results and discussion
      5. 26.5. Conclusions
      6. 26.6. Future trends and recommendations
  16. Part Five. Innovative manufacturing and materials for increased performance
    1. 27. Carbon and titanium dioxide nanotube polymer composite manufacturing – characterization and interphase modeling
      1. 27.1. Introduction
      2. 27.2. Carbon nanotubes
      3. 27.3. Manufacturing and characterization of epoxy resin/carbon nanotube composites
      4. 27.4. Titanium dioxide nanotubes
      5. 27.5. Experimental investigation of titania nanotubes (TNTs)
      6. 27.6. Interphase modeling
      7. 27.7. Conclusions
    2. 28. Recycling of reinforced plastics
      1. 28.1. Introduction
      2. 28.2. Objective
      3. 28.3. Materials and components used
      4. 28.4. Preparation of composite for remanufacturing
      5. 28.5. Manufacture of virgin specimens
      6. 28.6. Mechanical testing
      7. 28.7. Effect on mechanical properties of recycling of virgin material and GRP boat specimens
      8. 28.8. Remanufacturing
      9. 28.9. Hot forming (F + H)
      10. 28.10. Conclusions
    3. 29. Design and performance of novel aircraft structures with folded composite cores
      1. 29.1. Introduction
      2. 29.2. Folded core materials, cell geometry and manufacture
      3. 29.3. Folded core properties and design
      4. 29.4. Impact performance of foldcore composite sandwich panels
      5. 29.5. Conclusions and outlook
      6. 29.6. Further reading
  17. Index