The Latin abbreviation ibid. stands for ibidem, meaning “in the same place.” It is used in citations, endnotes, and references when the source is the same as the preceding source. When exactly the same, the term ibid. stands alone. If the source is the same but the page is not, add a reference to the applicable page or pages.

Examples, use of ibid. in endnotes:

(14) Smith, J. (2015). Proper citation guidelines. New York: Citation Publishing, 237–243

(15) Ibid., p. 246 (references same work and different page)

(16) Anderson, L. (2011). Style guide comparisons. Chicago: Chicago Writing Guide, p. 15

(17) Ibid. (references same work and same page)


The idiom is a device (word or phrase) that is meant to convey an idea, but should not ...

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