Professional peer review is performed not only in academia, but in many other specialized fields—notably in medicine (clinical peer review), in law, in accounting, in engineering, and in aviation.

3.Government peer review

In federal, state, and local government, peer review may be performed by individuals, co-workers, consulting experts, or committees of peers. The review may occur on many levels and, based on the role of the individual (or agency) under review, results may be published in open peer review and may also be available to the general public. In this case, the individuals writing the peer review need to be especially careful to understand that all opinions and conclusions are subject to review, criticism, or challenge.

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