CHAPTER 1

Background

Supply chains have existed ever since humans began trading with other tribes. Archaeologists have found evidence of artifacts far from where they are known to have originated. In historic times, the civilizations around the Mediterranean were active traders and even ventured outside the Mediterranean to the west coast of Africa to look for items they wanted. The Byzantines, in the seventh century AD, developed interchangeable parts manufacturing and a supply chain involving the church and the army to support their wars against the Persian Empire.1 Marco Polo established a global supply chain with Asian countries. From the 15th century onward, the nations of Europe established trade routes and global supply chains from America, ...

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