Breakthrough Knowing What We Don’t Know

Man is no Aristotelian god contemplating all existence at one glance.

—Walter Lippmann

It is only our profound and comprehensive ignorance of the nature of culture that makes it possible for us to believe that we direct and control it.1

—L.A. White

PDCA: The Improvement Kata

Science is grassroots use of induction to penetrate our threshold of knowledge.2 It starts off realistic but challenging—with an attempted step toward True North that we do not yet know how to do. In iterative tries we learn a path from current- to target-condition:


Lay out a rearrangement we believe can bump the system to a desired outcome.

Stake a claim: Doing X should move the needle to Y.

Design a try, ...

Get Sustain now with the O’Reilly learning platform.

O’Reilly members experience books, live events, courses curated by job role, and more from O’Reilly and nearly 200 top publishers.