The essence of sustainable design is to optimally balance capital, and operation and maintenance costs.
To reduce life cycle cost and maximize benefit over the life expectancy of an EEIS, standardized and modularized technologies play a key role in all the environmental engineering infrastructure (EEI) systems. Up‐front capital costs, operating costs, and total expected present value costs will be significantly reduced using modular components. For decentralized WRRF or even centralized WRRFs, emerging innovative technologies in anaerobic digestion, biomass conversion, and nutrient recovery technologies might significantly increase system reliability and resiliency. For example, molten salt fuel cell (MSFC) technologies ...
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