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Swarm Intelligence and Bio-Inspired Computation by Mehmet Karamanoglu, Amir Hossein Gandomi, Renbin Xiao, Zhihua Cui, Xin-She Yang

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6

Particle Swarm Algorithm

Convergence and Applications

Shichang Sun1, 2 and Hongbo Liu2, 3,    1School of Computer Science and Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, China, 2Department of Computer, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China, 3School of Information Science and Technology, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, China

6.1 Introduction

Particle swarm algorithm is inspired by social behavior patterns of organisms that live and interact within large groups. In particular, it incorporates swarming behaviors observed in flocks of birds, schools of fish, or swarms of bees, and even human social behavior, from which the “swarm intelligence” paradigm has emerged (Clerc, 2006; Fogel, 2006; Gandomi et al., 2013; Kennedy ...

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