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Swarm Intelligence and Bio-Inspired Computation by Mehmet Karamanoglu, Amir Hossein Gandomi, Renbin Xiao, Zhihua Cui, Xin-She Yang

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14

Modeling to Generate Alternatives Using Biologically Inspired Algorithms

Raha Imanirad and Julian Scott Yeomans,    OMIS Area, Schulich School of Business, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada

14.1 Introduction

Typical “real-world” decision-making involves complex problems that possess design requirements which are frequently very difficult to incorporate into their supporting mathematical programming formulations and tend to be plagued by numerous unquantifiable components (Brugnach et al., 2007; Janssen et al., 2010; Walker et al., 2003). While mathematically optimal solutions provide the best answers to these modeled formulations, they are generally not the best solutions to the underlying real problems as there are invariably unmodeled ...

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