System Architecture: Strategy and Product Development for Complex Systems, First Edition

Book Description

Architecture and Function of Complex Systems

System architecture is the study of early decision making in complex systems. This text teaches how to capture experience and analysis about early system decisions, and how to choose architectures that meet stakeholder needs, integrate easily, and evolve flexibly. With case studies written by leading practitioners, from hybrid cars to communications networks to aircraft, this text showcases the science and art of system architecture.

Table of Contents

  1. System Architecture Strategy and Product Development for Complex Systems
  2. Contents
  3. Foreword
  4. Preface
    1. About the Authors
  5. Part 1 System Thinking
    1. Chapter 1 Introduction to System Architecture
      1. Architecture of Complex Systems
      2. The Advantages of Good Architecture
      3. Learning Objectives
      4. Organization of the Text
      5. References
    2. Chapter 2 System Thinking
      1. 2.1 Introduction
      2. 2.2 Systems and Emergence
        1. Systems
        2. Emergence
      3. 2.3 Task1: Identify the System, Its Form, and Its Function
        1. Form and Function
        2. Instrument – Process – Operand: Canonical Patterns in Human Thought?
      4. 2.4 Task 2: Identify Entities of a System, Their Form, and Their Function
        1. Entities with Form and Function
        2. Define the Initial Decomposition into Entities
        3. Identify the Potential Entities of the System—Holistic Thinking
        4. Include the Important Entities of the System—Focus
        5. Create or Recognize Abstractions for the Entities
        6. Define the Boundary of the System, and Separate It from Context
      5. 2.5 Task 3: Identify the Relationships among the Entities
        1. Form and Function of Relationships
        2. External Interfaces
      6. 2.6 Task4 Emergence
        1. The Importance of Emergence
        2. System Failure
        3. Predicting Emergence
        4. Emergence Depends on Entities and Relationships
      7. 2.7 Summary
      8. References
    3. Chapter 3 Thinking about Complex Systems
      1. 3.1 Introduction
      2. 3.2 Complexity in Systems
        1. Complexity
        2. Introducing Team XT
      3. 3.3 Decomposition of Systems
        1. Decomposition
        2. Hierarchy
        3. Hierarchic Decomposition
        4. Simple Systems, Medium-Complexity Systems, and Complex Systems
        5. Atomic Parts
      4. 3.4 Special Logical Relationships
        1. The Class/Instance Relationship
        2. The Specialization Relationship
        3. Recursion
      5. 3.5 Reasoning through Complex Systems
        1. Top-down/Bottom-up Reasoning
        2. Zigzagging
      6. 3.6 Architecture Representation Tools: SysML and OPM
        1. Views and Projections
        2. SysML
        3. OPM
      7. 3.7 Summary
      8. References
  6. Part 2 Analysis of System Architecture
    1. References
    2. Chapter 4 Form
      1. 4.1 Introduction
      2. 4.2 Form in Architecture
        1. Form
        2. Analytical Representation of Form; Objects
        3. Decomposition of Form
      3. 4.3 Analysis of Form in Architecture
        1. Defining the System
        2. Identifying the Entities of Form
        3. The Pump as a Medium-Complexity System
      4. 4.4 Analysis of Formal Relationships in Architecture
        1. Formal Relationships
        2. Spatial/Topological Formal Relationships
        3. Representing Formal Relationships with Graphs and Diagrams; OPM
        4. Representing Formal Relationships with Table and Matrix-like Views; DSM
        5. Connectivity Formal Relationships
        6. Other Formal Relationships
          1. Address
          2. Sequence
          3. Membership
          4. Ownership
          5. Human relationships
      5. 4.5 Formal Context
        1. The Accompanying Systems, Whole Product System, and System Boundary
        2. The Use Context
      6. 4.6 Form in Software Systems
        1. The Software System: Informational Form and Duality
        2. Formal Entities and Relationships in Software
        3. Software Whole Product Systems, Boundaries, and Use Context
      7. 4.7 Summary
      8. References
    3. Chapter 5 Function
      1. 5.1 Introduction
      2. 5.2 Function in Architecture
        1. Function
        2. Function as Process Plus Operand
          1. Operands
          2. Processes
        3. Analytical Representation of Function
      3. 5.3 Analysis of External Function and Value
        1. Primary Externally Delivered Function
        2. Value-Related Operands
      4. 5.4 Analysis of Internal Function
        1. Internal Function
        2. Identifying Internal Function
      5. 5.5 Analysis of Functional Interactions and Functional Architecture
        1. Functional Interactions and Functional Architecture
        2. Identifying Functional Interactions
        3. The Value Pathway
        4. Emergence and Zooming
        5. Functional Architecture in Software Systems
      6. 5.6 Secondary Value-Related External and Internal Functions
      7. 5.7 Summary
      8. References
    4. Chapter 6 System Architecture
      1. 6.1 Introduction
      2. 6.2 System Architecture: Form and Function
        1. Mapping of Form and Function
          1. No instrument, or combined operand and instrument object
          2. One-to-one mapping with increasing operand complexity
          3. One-to-many and many-to-many mapping of process and operand
        2. Identifying Form-to-Process Mapping
        3. Structure of Form Enables and Informs Functional Interactions
        4. Identifying How Formal Structure Enables Function and Performance
      3. 6.3 Non-idealities, Supporting Layers, and Interfaces in System Architecture
        1. Non-idealities in System Architecture
        2. Supporting Functions and Layers in Architecture
        3. System Interfaces in Form and Function
      4. 6.4 Operational Behavior
        1. Operator
        2. Behavior
        3. Operations Cost
      5. 6.5 Reasoning about Architecture Using Representations
        1. Simplified System Representation
        2. Projected System Representations
        3. Projection onto Objects
        4. Projection onto Form
      6. 6.6 Summary
      7. References
    5. Chapter 7 Solution-Neutral Function and Concepts
      1. 7.1 Introduction
        1. Forward Engineering and More Complex Systems
        2. An Introduction to Solution-Neutral Function and to Concept
      2. 7.2 Identifying the Solution-Neutral Function
      3. 7.3 Concept
        1. The Notion of Concept
        2. Framework for Developing Concept
        3. Steps for Developing Concepts
        4. Naming Concepts
        5. Sorting Alternative Concepts
        6. Broader Concepts and Hierarchy
      4. 7.4 Integrated Concepts
      5. 7.5 Concepts of Operations and Services
      6. 7.6 Summary
      7. References
    6. Chapter 8 From Concept to Architecture
      1. 8.1 Introduction
      2. 8.2 Developing the Level 1 Architecture
        1. Expanding Concept to Functional Architecture
        2. Defining the Form
          1. Question
          2. Question
          3. Question
        3. Mapping the Function to Form
      3. 8.3 Developing the Level 2 Architecture
        1. Intent and Recursion at Level 2
        2. Developing the Level 2 Architecture
      4. 8.4 Home Data Network Architecture at Level 2
      5. 8.5 Modularizing the System at Level 1
      6. 8.6 Summary
      7. References
  7. Part 3 Creating System Architecture
    1. Chapter 9 The Role of the Architect
      1. 9.1 Introduction
      2. 9.2 Ambiguity and the Role of the Architect
        1. The Role of the Architect
        2. Reducing Ambiguity
        3. Deliverables of the Architect
      3. 9.3 The Product Development Process
        1. Similarities and Differences among Enterprise PDPs
        2. Generic Product Development Process
      4. 9.4 Summary
      5. References
    2. Chapter 10 Upstream and Downstream Influences on System Architecture
      1. 10.1 Introduction
      2. 10.2 Upstream Influence: Corporate Strategy
      3. 10.3 Upstream Influence: Marketing
        1. Inbound Marketing
          1. Stakeholders and their needs
          2. Segmentation of markets, market sizing, penetration
          3. Competitors and competing products
          4. Outbound marketing
      4. 10.4 Upstream Influence: Regulation and Pseudo-Regulatory Influences
        1. Sources of Regulation
        2. Pseudo-Regulation: Anticipated Regulation, Standards, Liability
      5. 10.5 Upstream Influence: Technology Infusion
      6. 10.6 Downstream Influence: Implementation—Coding, Manufacturing, and Supply Chain ManagementDownstream Influence: Implementation—Coding, Manufacturing, and Supply Chain Management
      7. 10.7 Downstream Influence: Operations
        1. Commissioning and Decommissioning
        2. Contingencies, Emergencies, and Stand-Alone Operations
      8. 10.8 Downstream Influence: Design for X
      9. 10.9 Downstream Influence: Product and System Evolution, and Product Families
        1. Reuse and Legacy Elements
        2. Product Lines
        3. Platforming and Architecture
      10. 10.10 The Product Case: Architecture Business Case Decision (ABCD)
      11. 10.11 Summary
      12. References
    3. Chapter 11 Translating Needs into Goals
      1. 11.1 Introduction
      2. 11.2 Identifying Beneficiaries and Stakeholders
        1. Beneficiaries and Stakeholders
        2. Identifying the Needs of Beneficiaries and Stakeholders
        3. Identifying Stakeholders and Needs from an Exchange
        4. Grouping Stakeholders
      3. 11.3 Characterizing Needs
        1. Stakeholders as a System; Indirect Value Delivery and Stakeholder Maps
        2. Prioritizing Needs across Stakeholders
        3. Summary of Needs Prioritization
      4. 11.4 Interpreting Needs as Goals
        1. Criteria for Goals
        2. Humanly Solvable Goals; System Problem Statements
          1. Iteration 1: System Problem Statement
          2. Iteration 2: System Problem Statement
      5. 11.5 Prioritizing Goals
        1. Critically
        2. Importantly
        3. Desirably
      6. Critically
      7. Importantly
      8. Desirably
      9. Consistent and Attainable Goals
      10. 11.6 Summary
      11. References
    4. Chapter 12 Applying Creativity to Generating a Concept
      1. 12.1 Introduction
      2. 12.2 Applying Creativity to Concept
        1. Creativity
        2. Unstructured Creativity
        3. Structured Creativity
        4. Identifying Concept
      3. 12.3 Develop the Concepts
      4. 12.4 Expand the Concepts and Develop the Concept Fragments
        1. Expanding the Propulsion Function
        2. Concept Fragments for Seven Additional Internal Functions of the Hybrid Vehicle
          1. Concept Fragment 1: Motor Start-Stop
          2. Concept Fragment 2: Regenerative Braking
          3. Concept Fragment 3: Power Boost
          4. Concept Fragment 4: Load Level Increase
          5. Concept Fragment 5: Electric Driving
          6. Concept Fragment 6: External Battery Charging
          7. Concept Fragment 7: Gliding
      5. 12.5 Evolve and Refine the Integrated Concepts
      6. 12.6 Select a Few Integrated Concepts for Further Development
      7. 12.7 Summary
      8. References
    5. Chapter 13 Decomposition as a Tool for Managing Complexity
      1. 13.1 Introduction
      2. 13.2 Understanding Complexity
        1. Complexity
        2. Complex versus Complicated
        3. Essential Complexity
      3. 13.3 Managing Complexity
        1. Choosing a Decomposition
        2. Modularity and Decomposition
      4. 13.4 Summary
      5. References
  8. Part 4 Architecture as Decisions
    1. Chapter 14 System Architecture as a Decision-Making Process
      1. 14.1 Introduction
      2. 14.2 Formulating the Apollo Architecture Decision Problem
        1. Heuristics for Decisions
        2. Apollo Decisions
        3. Constraints and Metrics
        4. Computed Apollo Architecture
      3. 14.3 Decisions and Decision Support
      4. 14.4 Four Main Tasks of Decision Support Systems
      5. 14.5 Basic Decision Support Tools
        1. Morphological Matrix
        2. Design Structure Matrix
        3. Decision Trees
      6. 14.6 Decision Support for System Architecture
      7. 14.7 Summary
      8. References
    2. Chapter 15 Reasoning about Architectural Tradespaces
      1. 15.1 Introduction
      2. 15.2 Tradespace Basics
      3. 15.3 The Pareto Frontier
        1. The Pareto Frontier and Dominance
        2. The Pareto Frontier of a GNC System Example
        3. The Fuzzy Pareto Frontier and Its Benefit
        4. Mining Data on the Fuzzy Pareto Frontier
        5. Pareto Frontier Mechanics
      4. 15.4 Structure of the Tradespace
      5. 15.5 Sensitivity Analysis
      6. 15.6 Organizing Architectural Decisions
        1. Impact on Other Decisions
        2. Impact on Metrics
        3. Decision Space View
        4. Sequencing Decisions
        5. Concluding Remarks about Decisions and Sequence
      7. 15.7 Summary
      8. References
    3. Chapter 16 Formulating and Solving System Architecture Optimization Problems
      1. 16.1 Introduction
      2. 16.2 Formulating a System Architecture Optimization Problem
      3. 16.3 NEOSS Example: An Earth Observing Satellite System for NASA
      4. 16.4 Patterns in System Architecting Decisions
        1. From Programmed Decisions to Patterns
        2. The DECISION-OPTION Pattern
        3. The DOWN-SELECTING Pattern
        4. The ASSIGNING Pattern
        5. The PARTITIONING Pattern
        6. The PERMUTING Pattern
        7. The CONNECTING Pattern
      5. 16.5 Formulating a Large-scale System Architecture Problem
        1. Overlap between Patterns
        2. Decomposition into Sub-problems
      6. 16.6 Solving System Architecture Optimization Problems
        1. Introduction
        2. Full-Factorial Enumeration
        3. Heuristics for Architecture Optimization
        4. A Generic Population-Based Heuristic Optimization
        5. Generating the Initial Population
        6. Completing an Initial Population with Deterministic Architectures
        7. General Heuristics and Meta-Heuristics for Efficient Search
        8. Heuristics in Genetic Algorithms
        9. Augmenting the Genetic Algorithm with More Heuristics
      7. 16.7 Summary
      8. References
  9. Appendices
    1. Appendix A: Effect of the Choice of Architecture Set on the Decision Sensitivity Metric
    2. Appendix B: Clustering Algorithms and Applications to System Architecture
      1. General-Purpose Clustering Algorithms
      2. Finding the Optimal System Decomposition
      3. Finding the Optimal Sequence of Decisions
    3. Appendix C: Rule-based Systems and Applications to System Architecture
      1. Rule-based Systems
      2. Declarative Enumeration of Architectures
      3. Expressing Synergies and Interferences as Rules
    4. Appendix D: Classical Combinatorial Optimization Problems
      1. References
  10. Chapter Problems
  11. System Architecture–Chapter 3
  12. System Architecture–Chapter 4
  13. System Architecture–Chapter 5
  14. System Architecture–Chapter 6
  15. System Architecture–Chapter 7
  16. System Architecture–Chapter 8
  17. System Architecture–Chapter 9
  18. System Architecture–Chapter 10
  19. System Architecture–Chapter 11
  20. System Architecture–Chapter 12
  21. System Architecture–Chapter 13
  22. System Architecture–Chapter 14
  23. System Architecture–Chapter 15
  24. System Architecture–Chapter 16
  25. Index
    1. A
    2. B
    3. C
    4. D
    5. E
    6. F
    7. G
    8. H
    9. I
    10. K
    11. L
    12. M
    13. N
    14. O
    15. P
    16. Q
    17. R
    18. S
    19. T
    20. U
    21. V
    22. W
    23. Z
  26. Principles of System Architecture

Product Information

  • Title: System Architecture: Strategy and Product Development for Complex Systems, First Edition
  • Author(s): Daniel Selva, Bruce Cameron, Edward Crawley
  • Release date: April 2015
  • Publisher(s): Pearson
  • ISBN: 9780136462989