CHAPTER 7

Psychodynamic Model of Executive Maturity: The Enneagram

Traditionally, power has been centralized at the top of organizations. However, unrelenting external and internal challenges—fierce global competition, an aging baby boomer population, instability in the financial and job markets, and increased corporate governance—have forced organizations to rethink how they identify, promote, and develop leaders. Organizations have also responded by creating flatter structures and transferring decision-making authority to employees throughout the organization. In essence, organizations now require individuals at all levels to be leaders; to thrive and survive in today’s organization, all employees must be leaders.

Unfortunately, not all employees ...

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