ICMPv4 Time Exceeded Messages

Large IP internetworks can have thousands of interconnected routers that pass datagrams between devices on various networks. In large internetworks, the topology of connections between routes can become complex, which makes routing more difficult. Routing protocols will normally allow routers to find the best routes between networks, but in some situations, an inefficient route might be selected for a datagram. In the worst case, a router loop may occur. An example of this situation is where Router A thinks datagrams intended for Network X should next go to Router B, which thinks they should go to Router C, which thinks they need to go to Router A. (See the ICMPv6 Time Exceeded Message description in Chapter 34 for ...

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