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Technology and Society by R. G. Menon

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3

Technological Development from the Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution

In this chapter we review the development of technology after the classical period, until the dawn of the Industrial Revolution. The Arabs1 not only helped to preserve the classical tradition, but also functioned as a bridge between the East and West during this period. Printing, paper and gunpowder reached Europe in this way. The Indian numerals and the place value system of writing numbers also reached Europe through the Arabs. Even though this period is often termed the Dark Ages in European history, important breakthroughs occurred in agriculture, mechanical technology, the harnessing of water and wind power, and also in metal working. Finally, the arrival of printing ...

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