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Telecommunication Networks

Book Description

Many argue that telecommunications network infrastructure is the most impressive and important technology ever developed. Analyzing the telecom market’s constantly evolving trends, research directions, infrastructure, and vital needs, Telecommunication Networks responds with revolutionized engineering strategies to optimize network construction.

Omnipresent in society, telecom networks integrate a wide range of technologies. These include quantum field theory for the study of optical amplifiers, software architectures for network control, abstract algebra required to design error correction codes, and network, thermal, and mechanical modeling for equipment platform design.

Illustrating how and why network developers make technical decisions, this book takes a practical engineering approach to systematically assess the network as a whole—from transmission to switching. Emphasizing a uniform bibliography and description of standards, it explores existing technical developments and the potential for projected alternative architectural paths, based on current market indicators.

The author characterizes new device and equipment advances not just as quality improvements, but as specific responses to particular technical market necessities. Analyzing design problems to identify potential links and commonalities between different parts of the system, the book addresses interdependence of these elements and their individual influence on network evolution. It also considers power consumption and real estate, which sometimes outweigh engineering performance data in determining a product’s success.

To clarify the potential and limitations of each presented technology and system analysis, the book includes quantitative data inspired by real products and prototypes. Whenever possible, it applies mathematical modeling to present measured data, enabling the reader to apply demonstrated concepts in real-world situations. Covering everything from high-level architectural elements to more basic component physics, its focus is to solve a problem from different perspectives, and bridge descriptions of well-consolidated solutions with newer research trends.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Half title
  3. Title
  4. Copy
  5. Preface
  6. Author
  7. 1 Introduction
    1. 1.1 Book Content and Organization
    2. 1.2 Using This Book
    3. Acknowledgments
  8. 2 Drivers for Telecommunication Network Evolution
    1. 2.1 Market of Telecom Carriers
      1. 2.1.1 Customer Base Impact on the Economics of Carriers
      2. 2.1.2 Broadband Services
      3. 2.1.3 Seamless Fixed and Mobile Service Convergence
      4. 2.1.4 Prices Fall and Overall Market Scenario
      5. 2.1.5 Telecommunication Market Value Chain
    2. 2.2 Requirements for Next Generation Networks
      1. 2.2.1 Network Operational Costs
      2. 2.2.2 Requirements for Next Generation Equipment
      3. 2.2.3 Requirements for Next generation Network Control Plane
      4. 2.2.4 Summary of Requirements for Next Generation Networks
    3. References
  9. 3 Networks Fundamentals and Present Architectures
    1. 3.1 Network Infrastructure Architecture
      1. 3.1.1 Network Topology
      2. 3.1.2 Access Network Architecture
      3. 3.1.3 Metro Network and Core Network Architectures
    2. 3.2 Network Functional Architecture
      1. 3.2.1 Core Network Vertical Architecture
        1. 3.2.1.1 Service Network
        2. 3.2.1.2 Packet Network
        3. 3.2.1.3 Transport Network
        4. 3.2.1.4 Control Plane and Management Plane
      2. 3.2.2 Network Layering
      3. 3.2.3 Internet
        1. 3.2.3.1 Transport Layer: Transmission Control Protocol
        2. 3.2.3.2 Transport Layer: User Datagram Protocol
        3. 3.2.3.3 Internet Layer: Internet Protocol
      4. 3.2.4 Carrier Class Ethernet
        1. 3.2.4.1 Protocols to Support Management Functionalities
        2. 3.2.4.2 QoS and Resilience
        3. 3.2.4.3 Scalability
      5. 3.2.5 Multi-Protocol Label Switching
      6. 3.2.6 Synchronous Optical Network (SDH/SONET)
      7. 3.2.7 Optical Transport Network (OTN)
        1. 3.2.7.1 Optical Channel Layer
        2. 3.2.7.2 Optical Multiplex Section
      8. 3.2.8 Telecommunication Management Network
        1. 3.2.8.1 Embedded Software Layer
        2. 3.2.8.2 Element Management Layer
        3. 3.2.8.3 Network Management Layer
        4. 3.2.8.4 Service Management Layer
        5. 3.2.8.5 Business Management Layer
      9. 3.2.9 Central Management in IP Networks
    3. 3.3 Network Convergence over IP
      1. 3.3.1 Packet over SDH/SONET Model
      2. 3.3.2 IP over Next Generation SONET/SDH
        1. 3.3.2.1 General Framing Procedure
        2. 3.3.2.2 Virtual Concatenation
        3. 3.3.2.3 Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation
      3. 3.3.3 IP over MPLS over OTN
      4. 3.3.4 IP over Ethernet over OTN
    4. 3.4 Comparison among Different Core Architectures
      1. 3.4.1 Architectures Functional Comparison
        1. 3.4.1.1 Framing Efficiency
        2. 3.4.1.2 Network Scalability: Core Network
        3. 3.4.1.3 Network Scalability: Metro Network
        4. 3.4.1.4 Network Survivability
      2. 3.4.2 Network Dimensioning and Cost Estimation
      3. 3.4.3 Test Networks and Traffic Model
      4. 3.4.4 Cost Comparison
    5. References
  10. 4 Technology for Telecommunications: Optical Fibers, Amplifiers, and Passive Devices
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Optical Fibers for Transmission
      1. 4.2.1 Single-Mode Transmission Fibers
      2. 4.2.2 Fiber Losses
        1. 4.2.2.1 Coupling Losses
        2. 4.2.2.2 Propagation Losses
      3. 4.2.3 linear Propagation in an Optical Fiber
      4. 4.2.4 Fiber Chromatic Dispersion
      5. 4.2.5 Polarization Mode Dispersion
      6. 4.2.6 Nonlinear Propagation in Optical Fibers
      7. 4.2.7 Kerr Effect
        1. 4.2.7.1 Kerr-Induced Self-Phase Modulation
        2. 4.2.7.2 Kerr-Induced Cross-Phase Modulation
        3. 4.2.7.3 Kerr-Induced Four-Wave Mixing
      8. 4.2.8 Raman Scattering
      9. 4.2.9 Brillouin Scattering
      10. 4.2.10 ITU-T Fiber Standards
      11. 4.2.11 Polarization Maintaining and Other Special Telecom Fibers
      12. 4.2.12 Fiber Cables
    3. 4.3 Optical Fiber Amplifiers
      1. 4.3.1 Basic Theory of Optical Amplifiers
        1. 4.3.1.1 Quantum Noise
        2. 4.3.1.2 Stationary Behavior of a Two-Level Amplifier
        3. 4.3.1.3 Dynamic Behavior of a Two-Level Amplifier
        4. 4.3.1.4 Amplifiers Functional Classification and Multistage Amplifiers
      2. 4.3.2 Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers
      3. 4.3.3 raman Fiber Amplifiers
      4. 4.3.4 Hybrid Raman-EDFA Amplifiers
    4. 4.4 Optical Filters
      1. 4.4.1 Fixed Wavelength Optical Filters
        1. 4.4.1.1 Grating Filters
        2. 4.4.1.2 Fiber Bragg Gratings
        3. 4.4.1.3 Thin-Film Interference Filters
      2. 4.4.2 Tunable Optical Filters
        1. 4.4.2.1 Etalon
        2. 4.4.2.2 Mach Zehnder Interferometer
        3. 4.4.2.3 Microrings Filters
      3. 4.4.3 WDM Multiplexers and Demultiplexers
    5. References
  11. 5 Technology for Telecommunications: Integrated Optics and Microelectronics
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Semiconductor Lasers
      1. 5.2.1 Fixed-Wavelength Edge-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers
        1. 5.2.1.1 Semiconductor Laser Principle
        2. 5.2.1.2 Semiconductor Laser Modeling and Dynamic Behavior
        3. 5.2.1.3 Quantum Well Lasers
        4. 5.2.1.4 Source Fabry–Perot Lasers
        5. 5.2.1.5 Source DFB Lasers
      2. 5.2.2 High-Power Pump Lasers
      3. 5.2.3 Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers
      4. 5.2.4 Tunable Lasers
        1. 5.2.4.1 Multisection Widely Tunable Lasers
        2. 5.2.4.2 External Cavity Lasers
        3. 5.2.4.3 Laser Arrays
    3. 5.3 Semiconductor Amplifiers
    4. 5.4 PIN and APD Photodiodes
    5. 5.5 Optical Modulation Devices
      1. 5.5.1 Mach–Zehnder Modulators
      2. 5.5.2 electro-Absorption Modulators
      3. 5.5.3 Integrated Optical Components
        1. 5.5.3.1 Electrons and Photons in Planar Integrated Circuits
        2. 5.5.3.2 Digital and Analog Planar Integrated Circuits
        3. 5.5.3.3 Role of Packaging
        4. 5.5.3.4 Integrated Optics Cost Scaling with Volumes
        5. 5.5.3.5 Integrated Planar III–V Components
    6. 5.6 Optical Switches
      1. 5.6.1 Micromachining Electromechanical Switches (MEMS)
      2. 5.6.2 Liquid Crystals Optical Switches
      3. 5.6.3 Wavelength-Selective Switches
    7. 5.7 Electronic Components
      1. 5.7.1 Development of CMOS Silicon Technology
        1. 5.7.1.1 CMOS Speed Evolution up and beyond the 32 nm Node
        2. 5.7.1.2 CMOS Single-Switch Power Consumption
        3. 5.7.1.3 CMOS Circuit Cost Trends
      2. 5.7.2 Application-Specific Integrated Circuits
      3. 5.7.3 Field Programmable Gate Array
        1. 5.7.3.1 Programmable Connection Network
        2. 5.7.3.2 Logic Block
        3. 5.7.3.3 FPGA Performances
      4. 5.7.4 Digital Signal Processor
        1. 5.7.4.1 DSP Hardware Architecture
        2. 5.7.4.2 DSP-Embedded Instruction Set
        3. 5.7.4.3 DSP Performances
    8. 5.8 Electronics for Transmission and Routing
      1. 5.8.1 Low-Noise Receiver Front End
      2. 5.8.2 Distortion Compensation Filters
      3. 5.8.3 Electronic Dispersion Post-Compensation
        1. 5.8.3.1 Feed-Forward/Decision Feedback Equalizer
        2. 5.8.3.2 Maximum Likelihood Sequence Estimation Equalizers
      4. 5.8.4 Pre-Equalization and Pre-Distortion Equalizers
      5. 5.8.5 Forward Error Correction
        1. 5.8.5.1 FEC Definition and Functionalities
        2. 5.8.5.2 BCH and the Reed–Solomon Codes
        3. 5.8.5.3 Turbo Codes
        4. 5.8.5.4 ITU-T OTN Standard and Advanced FEC
        5. 5.8.5.5 FEC Performances
      6. 5.8.6 Content Addressable Memories
    9. 5.9 Interface Modules and Transceivers
      1. 5.9.1 MSA Transmitting–Receiving Modules
      2. 5.9.2 Transceivers for Carrier-Class Transmission
        1. 5.9.2.1 SFP Transceivers for Telecommunications
        2. 5.9.2.2 XFP Transceivers for Telecommunications
    10. Reference
  12. 6 Transmission Systems Architectures and Performances
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Intensity Modulation and Direct Detection Transmission
      1. 6.2.1 Fiber-Optic Transmission Systems
        1. 6.2.1.1 Wavelength Division Multiplexing
        2. 6.2.1.2 Transmission System Performance Indicators
      2. 6.2.2 Ideal IM–DD Transmission
      3. 6.2.3 Analysis of a Realistic Single-Channel IM–DD System
        1. 6.2.3.1 Evaluation of the BER in the Presence of Channel Memory
        2. 6.2.3.2 NRZ Signal after Propagation
        3. 6.2.3.3 RZ Signal after Propagation
        4. 6.2.3.4 Realistic Receiver Noise Model
        5. 6.2.3.5 Performance Evaluation of an Unrepeated IM-DD System
      4. 6.2.4 Performance of Non-Regenerated NRZ Systems
        1. 6.2.4.1 Dispersion-Compensated NRZ IM-DD Systems
      5. 6.2.5 Performance of Non-Regenerated Return to Zero Systems
      6. 6.2.6 Unrepeated Wavelength Division Multiplexing Systems
        1. 6.2.6.1 Linear Interference in Wavelength Division Multiplexing Systems
        2. 6.2.6.2 Nonlinear Interference in Wavelength Division Multiplexing Systems
        3. 6.2.6.3 Jitter, Unperfected Modulation, Laser Linewidth, and Other Impairments
    3. 6.3 Intensity Modulation and Direct Detection Systems Using Optical Amplifiers
      1. 6.3.1 Long-Haul and Ultra-Long-Haul Transmission: Performance Evaluation
      2. 6.3.2 Design of Long-Haul Transmission Systems
        1. 6.3.2.1 Erbium-Doped Optical Fiber Amplifier Amplified Systems Design
        2. 6.3.2.2 Long-Haul Transmission at 40 Gbit/s
        3. 6.3.2.3 Long-Haul Transmission: Realistic Systems Characteristics
      3. 6.3.3 Design of Ultra-Long-Haul Transmission Systems
        1. 6.3.3.1 Ultra-Long-Haul Transmission at 10 Gbit/s: Draft Design
        2. 6.3.3.2 Ultra-Long-Haul Transmission Systems: Penalties, Evaluation, and Simulation Results
        3. 6.3.3.3 Ultra-Long-Haul Transmission at 40 Gbit/s
        4. 6.3.3.4 Ultra-Long-Haul Systems with Electronic Pre-Compensation
      4. 6.3.4 Single-Span Systems
        1. 6.3.4.1 Single-Span Systems with Intensity Modulation and All Raman Amplification
        2. 6.3.4.2 Single-Span Systems with Differential Phase Shift Keying Transmission and Raman Amplification
        3. 6.3.4.3 Single-Span Systems with Electronic Pre-Distortion at 10 Gbit/s
      5. 6.3.5 Metropolitan Optical Rings
        1. 6.3.5.1 Transmission in Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing Metropolitan Ring
        2. 6.3.5.2 Transmission in Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing Metropolitan Ring
    4. 6.4 Alternative Modulation Formats
      1. 6.4.1 Single Side Band Modulation
      2. 6.4.2 Duobinary Modulation
    5. 6.5 Hardware Architecture of Optical Transmission Systems
      1. 6.5.1 Mechanical Structure of a Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing System
        1. 6.5.1.1 Signal Cards
        2. 6.5.1.2 Support Cards
        3. 6.5.1.3 Control Cards
        4. 6.5.1.4 Redundancies
      2. 6.5.2 Backplane Architecture
      3. 6.5.3 Backplane Bus Protocols
      4. 6.5.4 System Thermal Design
    6. References
  13. 7 Switching Systems: Architecture and Performances
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Space Division Switch Fabrics
      1. 7.2.1 Crossbar Switch Fabrics
      2. 7.2.2 Clos Switch Fabric
        1. 7.2.2.1 Strictly Nonblocking Clos Networks
        2. 7.2.2.2 Rearrangeable Nonblocking Clos Networks
        3. 7.2.2.3 Blocking Clos Networks
        4. 7.2.2.4 Control of a Clos Switch
        5. 7.2.2.5 Dimensions and Power Consumption
        6. 7.2.2.6 Clos Switch Fabric Modularity
      3. 7.2.3 Banyan Switch Fabric
        1. 7.2.3.1 Routing through a Banyan Network
        2. 7.2.3.2 Modularity of a Banyan Network
        3. 7.2.3.3 Real Estate and Power Consumption of a Banyan Network
        4. 7.2.3.4 Variation on Basic Banyan Networks
    3. 7.3 Time Division Switch Fabrics
      1. 7.3.1 Time Slot Interchange–Based Switch Fabrics
      2. 7.3.2 Bus-Based Switch Fabrics
        1. 7.3.2.1 Switch Fabric Based on a Slotted Random Access Bus
        2. 7.3.2.2 Switch Fabric Based on an Unslotted Random Access Bus
        3. 7.3.2.3 Switch Fabric Based on a Carrier Sense Multiple Access Bus
        4. 7.3.2.4 Switch Fabric Based on Variations of the Carrier Sense Multiple Access Bus
      3. 7.3.3 Delay in Bus-Based Switch Fabrics
    4. 7.4 Wavelength Division Switch Fabrics
    5. 7.5 Hardware Platforms for Switching Network Elements
      1. 7.5.1 Fast Backplanes for Switching Equipment
        1. 7.5.1.1 High-Speed Electrical Backplanes
        2. 7.5.1.2 Optical Backplane
        3. 7.5.1.3 Optical Backplanes Based on Monolithic Optical Integration
        4. 7.5.1.4 Protocols for Very High-Speed Backplanes
      2. 7.5.2 Platform Volume Value
    6. 7.6 On the Performances of Core Switching Machines
      1. 7.6.1 Capacity, Throughput, and Channel Utilization
      2. 7.6.2 Scalability
      3. 7.6.3 Interface Cards Density
      4. 7.6.4 Power Consumption
      5. 7.6.5 Availability
    7. 7.7 Circuit Switching in the Transport Layer
      1. 7.7.1 Connection Switching
      2. 7.7.2 Connection Management
      3. 7.7.3 Connection Survivability
      4. 7.7.4 Optical Cross Connect
        1. 7.7.4.1 OXCs with WDM or Gray Interfaces
        2. 7.7.4.2 OXC with an Electronic Switch Fabric
        3. 7.7.4.3 OXC with an Optical Switch Fabric
      5. 7.7.5 Optical Add-Drop Multiplexer
      6. 7.7.6 Add-Drop Multiplexer
    8. 7.8 Packet Switching at MPLS and IP Layers: Routers
      1. 7.8.1 Generalities on IP/MPLS Routers and Routers Classification
      2. 7.8.2 IP Routers Architecture
      3. 7.8.3 Routing Tables Lookup
        1. 7.8.3.1 Binary Trie–Based Algorithms
        2. 7.8.3.2 Hardware-Based Algorithms
        3. 7.8.3.3 Comparison between Forwarding Table Lookup Algorithms
      4. 7.8.4 Broadband Remote Access Servers and Edge Routers
      5. 7.8.5 Practical Routers Implementations
    9. 7.9 Packet Switching at Ethernet Layer: Carrier Class Ethernet Switches
      1. 7.9.1 Generalities on Carrier Class Ethernet Switches
      2. 7.9.2 Architecture of a Carrier Class Ethernet Switch
    10. References
  14. 8 Convergent Network Management and Control Plane
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 ASON Architecture
      1. 8.2.1 ASON Network Model
      2. 8.2.2 ASON Standard Interfaces
      3. 8.2.3 ASON Control Plane Functionalities
        1. 8.2.3.1 Discovery
        2. 8.2.3.2 Routing
        3. 8.2.3.3 Signaling
        4. 8.2.3.4 Call and Connection Control
        5. 8.2.3.5 Survivability
    3. 8.3 GMPLS Architecture
      1. 8.3.1 GMPLS Data Paths and Generalized Labels Hierarchy
      2. 8.3.2 GMPLS Protocol Suite
        1. 8.3.2.1 Open Shortest Path First with Traffic Engineering
        2. 8.3.2.2 IS–IS Routing Protocol
        3. 8.3.2.3 Brief Comparison between OSPF-TE and IS–IS
        4. 8.3.2.4 Resource Reservation Protocol with Traffic Engineering Extensions
        5. 8.3.2.5 Constrained Routing Label Distribution Protocol
        6. 8.3.2.6 Comparison between RSVP-TE and CR-LDP
        7. 8.3.2.7 Line Management Protocol
    4. 8.4 Design and Optimization of ASON/GMPLS Networks
      1. 8.4.1 Detailed Example: Design Target and Issues
        1. 8.4.1.1 Basic Examples of Network Design
        2. 8.4.1.2 Design for Survivability
      2. 8.4.2 Design Based on Optimization Algorithms
        1. 8.4.2.1 Optimized Design Hypotheses
        2. 8.4.2.2 Network Model for ILP
        3. 8.4.2.3 ILP Design Complexity
        4. 8.4.2.4 Design in Unknown Traffic Conditions
      3. 8.4.3 Routing Policies–Based Design
        1. 8.4.3.1 OSPF Protocol
        2. 8.4.3.3 Comparison among the Considered Algorithms
    5. 8.5 GMPLS Network Design for Survivability
      1. 8.5.1 Survivability Techniques Performance Evaluation
      2. 8.5.2 Protection versus Restoration
        1. 8.5.2.1 Bandwidth Usage
        2. 8.5.2.2 Recovery Time
        3. 8.5.2.3 Specific Protocols
        4. 8.5.2.4 QoS Issues
        5. 8.5.2.5 Quantitative Comparison
      3. 8.5.3 Multilayer Survivability Strategies
        1. 8.5.3.1 Multilayer Survivability
        2. 8.5.3.2 QoS-Driven Multilayer Survivability
    6. 8.6 Impact of ASON/GMPLS on Carriers OPEX
    7. References
  15. 9 Next Generation Transmission Systems Enabling Technologies, Architectures, and Performances
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 100 Gbit/s Transmission Issues
      1. 9.2.1 Optical Signal to Noise Ratio Reduction
      2. 9.2.2 Fiber Chromatic Dispersion
        1. 9.2.2.1 Impact of Chromatic Dispersion on 100 Gbit/s Transmission
        2. 9.2.2.2 Tunable Optical Dispersion Compensator
      3. 9.2.3 Fiber Polarization Mode Dispersion
        1. 9.2.3.1 Impact of Polarization Mode Dispersion on 100 Gbit/s Transmission
        2. 9.2.3.2 Polarization Mode Dispersion Compensation
      4. 9.2.4 Other Limiting Factors
        1. 9.2.4.1 Fiber Nonlinear Propagation
        2. 9.2.4.2 Timing Jitter
        3. 9.2.4.3 Electrical Front End Adaptation
    3. 9.3 Multilevel Optical Transmission
      1. 9.3.1 Optical Instantaneous Multilevel Modulation
      2. 9.3.2 Practical Multilevel Transmitters
        1. 9.3.2.1 Multilevel Differential Phase Modulation (M-DPSK)
        2. 9.3.2.2 Multilevel Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (M-QAM)
        3. 9.3.2.3 Multilevel Polarization Modulation (M-PolSK)
        4. 9.3.2.4 Multilevel Four Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (M-4QAM)
      3. 9.3.3 Multilevel Modulation Receivers
        1. 9.3.3.1 Four Quadrature Receiver
        2. 9.3.3.2 M-DPSK Optimum Receiver
        3. 9.3.3.3 M-PolSK Receivers
      4. 9.3.4 Ideal Performances of Multilevel Systems
        1. 9.3.4.1 M-QAM and M-4QAM with Quadrature Receiver
        2. 9.3.4.2 M-PolSK with Stokes Parameters Receiver
        3. 9.3.4.3 M-DPSK with Direct Detection Receiver
        4. 9.3.4.4 Comparison among Different Modulation Formats
      5. 9.3.5 Coherent Receivers Sensitivity to Phase and Polarization Fluctuations
        1. 9.3.5.1 Phase Noise Penalty for Coherent Quadrature Receiver
        2. 9.3.5.2 Depolarization Penalty for Coherent Quadrature Receiver
    4. 9.4 Alternative and Complementary Transmission Techniques
      1. 9.4.1 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
      2. 9.4.2 Polarization Division Multiplexing
      3. 9.4.3 Channel and Pulse Polarization Diversity
    5. 9.5 Design Rules for 100 Gbit/s Long Haul Transmission Systems
      1. 9.5.1 Practical Multilevel Systems: Transmitting 100 Gbit/s on a 40 Gbit/s Line
        1. 9.5.1.1 Power Budget
        2. 9.5.1.2 Penalty Analysis
      2. 9.5.2 Practical Multilevel Systems: Transmitting 100 Gbit/s on a 10 Gbit/s Line by 4QAM
        1. 9.5.2.1 Ideal Signal to Noise Ratio Requirements
        2. 9.5.2.2 Penalties Analysis
      3. 9.5.3 Practical Multilevel Systems: Transmitting 100 Gbit/s on a 10 Gbit/s Line by PolSK
        1. 9.5.3.1 Draft Design and Power Budget
        2. 9.5.3.2 Penalties Analysis
      4. 9.5.4 Practical Multilevel Systems: Native 100 Gbit/s Ultra-Long Haul Systems
        1. 9.5.4.1 Draft Design
        2. 9.5.4.2 Penalties Analysis
    6. 9.6 Summary of Experimental 100 Gbit/s Systems Characteristics
    7. References
  16. 10 Next Generation Networking: Enabling Technologies, Architectures, and Performances
    1. 10.1 Introduction
      1. 10.1.1 Digital Optical Network
      2. 10.1.2 Optical Transparent Network
      3. 10.1.3 Optical Packet Network
    2. 10.2 Optical Digital Network
      1. 10.2.1 Optoelectronic Integration: ODN Enabling Technology
      2. 10.2.2 Optical Digital Network Architecture and Design
        1. 10.2.2.1 ODN Control and Management Plane
        2. 10.2.2.2 ODN Physical Layer Sub-Layering
        3. 10.2.2.3 ODN Network Elements and Data Plane
    3. 10.3 Transparent Optical Transport Network
      1. 10.3.1 Enabling Technologies for the Transparent Optical Transport Network
        1. 10.3.1.1 Nonlinear Behavior of Semiconductor Amplifiers
        2. 10.3.1.2 Wavelength Converters and Regenerators Based on Cross-Gain Modulation
        3. 10.3.1.3 Wavelength Converters and Regenerators Based on Cross-Phase Modulation
        4. 10.3.1.4 Wavelength Converters Based on Four-Wave Mixing
      2. 10.3.2 Transparent Optical Network Elements
        1. 10.3.2.1 PWP Transparent OXC: Example of Performances
        2. 10.3.2.2 PWC Transparent OXC: Example of Performances
        3. 10.3.2.3 LWC Transparent OXC: Example of Performances
        4. 10.3.2.4 Final Comparison
      3. 10.3.3 Transport of Control Plane and Management Plane Messages
        1. 10.3.3.1 Pilot Tones
        2. 10.3.3.2 Low Frequency Subcarrier Modulated Data Channel
        3. 10.3.3.3 Optical Code Division Multiplexing
      4. 10.3.4 Design of a Transparent Optical Network: ILP Optimization
        1. 10.3.4.1 Integer Linear Programming to Dimension Transparent Optical Transport Networks
        2. 10.3.4.2 Problem of Wavelength Routing and the Use of Wavelength Converters
        3. 10.3.4.3 Problem of Transmission Impairments and the Use of Regenerators
      5. 10.3.5 Cyclic-Based Design Algorithms and Wavelength Converters Placement
        1. 10.3.5.1 Full Wavelength Conversion Cyclic Algorithm
        2. 10.3.5.2 No Wavelength Conversion Cyclic Algorithm
        3. 10.3.5.3 Partial Wavelength Conversion Cyclic Algorithm
        4. 10.3.5.4 Cost Model and Transmission Feasibility in Cyclic Algorithms
        5. 10.3.5.5 Example of Network Design and Role of Wavelength Converters
      6. 10.3.6 Translucent Optical Network: Design Methods and Regenerators Placing Problem
      7. 10.3.7 Summary: The Transparent Optical Network Status
    4. 10.4 Transparent Optical Packet Network (T-OPN)
      1. 10.4.1 Transparent Optical Packet Network Enabling Technologies
        1. 10.4.1.1 Optical Memories
        2. 10.4.1.2 Switches: Two Examples of All-Optical Switch Fabric
        3. 10.4.1.3 Digital Optical Processing
      2. 10.4.2 Final Comment on the All-Optical Packet Network
    5. References
  17. 11 The New Access Network Systems and Enabling Technologies
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 TDMA and TDM Overlay Passive Optical Network
      1. 11.2.1 TDM PON Classification
      2. 11.2.2 GPON architecture and Performances
        1. 11.2.2.1 GPON Transmission Performances
        2. 11.2.2.2 GPON Frame and Adaptation Protocol
        3. 11.2.2.3 GPON Capacity per User
        4. 11.2.2.4 Functional Structure of a GPON OLT and ONU
      3. 11.2.3 NG-PON Project and the GPON WDM Overlay
      4. 11.2.4 XG-PON
    3. 11.3 WDM Passive Optical Network
    4. 11.4 WDM-PON versus GPON and XG-PON Performance Comparison
    5. 11.5 Enabling Technologies for Gbit/s Capacity Access
      1. 11.5.1 GPON Optical interfaces
        1. 11.5.1.1 GPON Interfaces Technology
        2. 11.5.1.2   GPON Interfaces Draft Cost Model
      2. 11.5.2 WDM-PON and XWDM-PON interface Technology
    6. References
  18. Appendix A: SDH/SONET Signaling
  19. Appendix B: Spanning Tree Protocol
  20. Appendix C: Inter-Symbol Interference Indexes Summation Rule
  21. Appendix D: Fiber Optical Amplifiers: Analytical Modeling
  22. Appendix E: Space Division Switch Fabric Performance Evaluation
  23. Appendix F: Acronyms
  24. Index