Chapter 1. Fundamentals of Measurement

1.1. Introduction

Metrology, or the science of measurement, is a discipline that plays an important role in sustaining modern societies. It deals not only with the measurements that we make in day-to-day living, such as at the shop or the petrol station, but also in industry, science, and technology. The technological advancement of the present-day world would not have been possible if not for the contribution made by metrologists all over the world to maintain accurate measurement systems.

The earliest metrological activity has been traced back to prehistoric times. For example, a beam balance dated to 5000 bc has been found in a tomb in Nagada in Egypt. It is well known that Sumerians and Babylonians ...

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