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The Art and Science of Business Communication, 4e, 4th Edition

Book Description

The book aims at preparing students for effective communication at the workplace by focusing on how to communicate in business situations — how to recognize the techniques that help in communicating a message accurately, how to handle intercultural situations that require thoughtful communication, how to use appropriate words and an effective tone for writing effectively and so on. In a nutshell, the fourth edition builds on the strengths of the first three editions and provides a more comprehensive coverage with rich illustrations, practical guidelines and a more reader-friendly design.

Table of Contents

  1. Preface
  2. About the Authors
  3. PART I COMMUNICATION SKILLS
    1. 1. Profile of an Effective Communicator
      1. An Analysis of the Case
      2. Review Your learning
      3. Endnote
    2. 2. Theatre Technique for Effective Communication and Personality Development
      1. What is the Theatre?
      2. What is a Play?
      3. Story
      4. Six Stages of Play
      5. Issues
      6. Theatre and Communication Skills
      7. Theatre Technique
      8. What is Personality?
      9. Objectives
      10. Pedagogy
      11. Areas Covered
      12. Business Communication
      13. Interpersonal Communication
      14. Oral Communication
      15. Written Communication
      16. Body Language
      17. Interpersonal Relations
      18. Application Areas
      19. Session-wise Plan
      20. Evaluation
      21. Software and Hardware Needed
      22. The End Product
      23. Method
      24. Script Writing
      25. Script Reading
      26. Final Presentation
      27. Conclusion
      28. Summary
      29. Case: Stanford Prison Experiment
      30. Question to Answer
      31. Review Your Learning
      32. Reflect on Your Learning
      33. Apply Your Learning
      34. Self-Check Your Learning
      35. Endnotes
    3. 3. Reading Skills
      1. What is reading?
      2. Understanding
      3. How do We Read?
      4. How Do Our Eyes Move and Pause and Move?
      5. Know Your Reading Speed
      6. Enhancement of Reading Ability/Purpose of Reading
      7. The Nature of Reading Material/The Reading Style
      8. Styles of Reading
      9. Slow Reading Style
      10. Normal Reading Style
      11. Rapid Reading Style—Skimming
      12. Surveying—Process of Reading a Book, Long Article, or Report
      13. Scanning
      14. Know the Text Organization
      15. Training of Eyes
      16. Guidelines for Effective Reading
      17. Do’s
      18. Don’ts
      19. Reading Efficiency
      20. Watch the Eye Movement
      21. Summary
      22. Case: Chorus Reading
      23. Review Your Learning
      24. Reflect on Your Learning
      25. Apply Your Learning
      26. Self-Check Your Learning
      27. Reading Exercises
      28. Endnote
    4. 4. Speaking Skills
      1. Speaking
      2. The Art of Speaking
      3. Goals of Speaking
      4. Speaking Styles
      5. The Speaking Process
      6. Guidelines for Developing Speaking Skills
      7. What is Oral Communication?
      8. Importance of Oral Communication Skills
      9. Choosing the Form of Communication
      10. Principles of Successful Oral Communication
      11. Guidelines for Effective Oral Communication
      12. Barriers to Effective Oral Communication
      13. Three Aspects of Oral Communication—Conversing, Listening, and Body Language
      14. Intercultural Oral Communication
      15. ■ INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION
      16. Oral Communication and Electronic Media
      17. Phones
      18. Voice Mail
      19. Conference Calls
      20. Cell Phones
      21. Video Conferencing
      22. Summary
      23. Case: Dealing with outsourcing Backlash
      24. Questions to Answer
      25. Review Your Learning
      26. Reflect on Your Learning
      27. Apply Your Learning
      28. Self-check Your Learning
      29. Endnotes
    5. 5. Conversation Skills
      1. What is Conversation?
      2. Social Conversation
      3. Effective Conversation
      4. ■ EFFECTIVE CONVERSATION: AN EXAMPLE
      5. Conversation Control
      6. Controlling the Direction of Conversation
      7. Managing Negative Responses
      8. Noticing and Recognizing Cues and Clues
      9. Interpreting Signs and Signals
      10. Avoiding Parallel Conversation
      11. Practising Sequential Conversation
      12. Using Reflection and Empathy
      13. Cultivating a Sense of Timing
      14. Summarizing
      15. Transactional Analysis (TA)
      16. Psychological Characteristics of Ego States
      17. Applications of Conversation Control
      18. Meetings
      19. Being Assertive Without Being Aggressive
      20. Controlled Response to Conversational Attacks
      21. Negotiating Through Conversation Control
      22. Summary
      23. Case: Discussing Vandalism
      24. Review Your Learning
      25. Reflect on Your Learning
      26. Apply Your Learning
      27. Questions to Answer
      28. Self-check Your Learning
      29. Endnotes
    6. 6. Listening Skills
      1. What is Listening?
      2. How Do We Listen?
      3. Listening as a Management Tool
      4. The Process of Listening
      5. Factors that Adversely Affect Listening
      6. Lack of Concentration
      7. Unequal Statuses
      8. The Halo Effect
      9. Complexes
      10. A Closed Mind
      11. Poor Retention
      12. Premature Evaluation and Hurried Conclusions
      13. Abstracting
      14. Slant
      15. Cognitive Dissonance
      16. Language Barrier
      17. Characteristics of Effective and Ineffective Listeners
      18. Guidelines for Improving Listening Skills
      19. Responsive Listening
      20. Basic Reflective Response
      21. Basic Clarification Response
      22. Summary
      23. Case: Too Busy to Listen?
      24. Questions to Answer
      25. Review Your Learning
      26. Reflect on Your Learning
      27. Apply Your Learning
      28. Self-check Your Learning
      29. Endnotes
    7. 7. Non-verbal Skills
      1. What is Non-verbal Communication?
      2. Meta-communication
      3. Kinesic Communication
      4. Characteristics of Non-verbal Communication
      5. Classification of Non-verbal Communication
      6. Ekman’s Classification of Communicative Movements
      7. Face Facts
      8. Positive Gestures
      9. Negative Gestures
      10. Lateral Gestures
      11. Responding to Power Posturing
      12. Guidelines for Developing Non-verbal Communication Skills
      13. Communication Breakdown
      14. Summary
      15. CASE: Everest Textile mills
      16. Review Your Learning
      17. Reflect on Your Learning
      18. Apply Your Learning
      19. Self-check Your Learning
      20. Endnote
    8. 8. Writing Skills
      1. The Art of Writing
      2. The Skills Required in Written Communication
      3. The Purpose of Writing
      4. Writing to Inform
      5. Writing to Persuade
      6. ■ INFORMATORY WRITING
      7. ■ PERSUASIVE WRITING
      8. Clarity in Writing
      9. ■ EXAMPLES OF CLEAR AND UNCLEAR WRITING
      10. Principles of Effective Writing
      11. Accuracy
      12. Brevity
      13. ■ REWRITING A LETTER
      14. Language, Tone, and Level of Formality
      15. Summary
      16. Case: On Writing Well
      17. Review Your Learning
      18. Reflect on Your Learning
      19. Apply Your Learning
      20. Self-check Your Learning
      21. Endnotes
  4. PART II BUSINESS COMMUNICATION
    1. 9. Nature and Process of Communication
      1. The Role of Communication
      2. ■ AN INSTANCE OF UNCLEAR COMMUNICATION
      3. Defining Communication
      4. Classification of Communication
      5. The Purpose of Communication
      6. Communication to Inform
      7. Communication to Persuade
      8. The Process of Communication
      9. The Linear Concept of Communication
      10. The Shannon–Weaver Model
      11. The Two-way Communication Process
      12. The Elements of Communication
      13. The Major Difficulties in Communication
      14. Barriers to Communication
      15. Incorrect Assumptions
      16. Psychosocial Barriers
      17. Conditions for Successful Communication
      18. The Seven C’s of Communication
      19. Universal Elements in Communication
      20. ■ HOW SENTENCE STRUCTURE AFFECTS MEANING
      21. Communication and Electronic Media
      22. Communication and Social Media
      23. Summary
      24. Case: Communication Failure
      25. Review Your Learning
      26. Reflect on Your Learning
      27. Apply Your Learning
      28. Self-check Your Learning
      29. Endnotes
    2. 10. Organizational Communication
      1. The Importance of Communication in Management
      2. Some Important Functions of Management
      3. How Communication Is Used by Managers
      4. Communication Concerns of the Manager
      5. Human Needs
      6. Theory X and Theory Y
      7. Communication Training for Managers
      8. Communication Structures in Organizations
      9. Vertical Communication
      10. Horizontal Communication
      11. Line and Staff Management
      12. Formal Communication
      13. Informal Communication
      14. Information to be Communicated at the Workplace
      15. Summary
      16. Case: Communication Breakdown at City Hospital
      17. Review Your Learning
      18. Reflect on Your Learning
      19. Apply Your Learning
      20. Self-check Your Learning
      21. Endnotes
    3. 11. Cross-cultural Communication
      1. Globalization and Intercultural Communication
      2. The New Global Mantra: Go Local
      3. Cultural Sensitivity
      4. Meetings and Social Visits
      5. Group Behaviour
      6. Paying a Visit
      7. Addressing Others
      8. Developing Cultural Intelligence
      9. High-context Cultures
      10. Low-context Cultures
      11. Time As a Cultural Factor
      12. Space As a Cultural Factor
      13. Some Examples of Cultural Diversity
      14. Japan
      15. France
      16. Germany
      17. Brazil
      18. Guidelines for Intercultural Communication
      19. E-mail and Intercultural Communication
      20. Language
      21. Culture
      22. ■ SAMPLE E-MAILS
      23. Summary
      24. Case: Intercultural Lessons from Crash
      25. Review Your Learning
      26. Reflect on Your Learning
      27. Apply Your Learning
      28. Self-check Your Learning
      29. Endnotes
    4. 12. Business Letters, Memos, and E-mails
      1. Introduction
      2. Writing Routine and Good-news Letters
      3. Routine Claim Letters and ‘Yes’ Replies
      4. Routine Request Letters and ‘Yes’ Replies
      5. Routine Orders and Their ‘Yes’ Replies
      6. Guidelines for a ‘Yes’ Reply
      7. Guidelines for a ‘No’ Reply
      8. Writing Persuasive Letters
      9. ■ WRITING A PERSUASIVE LETTER
      10. Writing Memos
      11. How to Write a Memo
      12. Uses of a Memo
      13. Essentials of Good Business Letters and Memos
      14. Simplicity
      15. Clarity
      16. Conciseness
      17. Standard and Neutral Language
      18. You-Attitude
      19. Sincerity and Tone
      20. Emphasis
      21. Planning, Writing, and Revising: The Three Steps of Successful Writing
      22. ■ REDRAFTING A MEMO
      23. Form and Layout of Business Letters
      24. Business-letter Styles
      25. Layout and Formatting Guidelines
      26. Writing E-mails
      27. Receiver’s E-mail Account
      28. Subject Line
      29. Sending Copies
      30. ■ A SERIES OF E-MAILS
      31. Summary
      32. Case: A Reply Sent to an Erring Customer
      33. Review Your Learning
      34. Reflect on Your Learning
      35. Apply Your Learning
      36. Self-check your Learning
    5. 13. Social Media
      1. Introduction
      2. Let the first ‘Social Media Games’ begin!
      3. The Age of Internet Communication Tools
      4. What does Social Media mean?
      5. Open Diary
      6. Weblog
      7. Characteristics of Social Media
      8. Classification of Social Media
      9. Social Presence
      10. The Concept of Self-presentation
      11. Nature and Scope of Six Types of Social Media
      12. Collaborative Projects
      13. Blogs
      14. Content Communities
      15. Social Networking Sites
      16. Virtual Game Worlds
      17. Virtual Social Worlds
      18. Purpose/Choosing the Most Suitable Social Media
      19. Target Group
      20. Revisiting the Communication Theory
      21. Summary
      22. Case: Was London Olympics 2012 the ‘Social-Olympics’?
      23. Review Your Learning
      24. Reflect on Your Learning
      25. Apply Your Learning
      26. Self-check Your Learning
      27. Endnotes
    6. 14. Business Reports
      1. What is a Report?
      2. The Purpose of a Report
      3. Kinds of Reports
      4. The Terms of Reference
      5. The Objectives of a Report
      6. Planning and Organizing Information
      7. Sequencing Information
      8. Outline As a Structuring Device
      9. Writing Reports
      10. Structure of a Report
      11. Basic and Subsidiary Parts of a Report
      12. Short Management Reports
      13. Memos
      14. Letters
      15. Long Formal Reports
      16. The Title Page
      17. Acknowledgements
      18. Cover Letter
      19. Letter of Transmittal
      20. Table of Contents
      21. Abstract and Executive Summary
      22. Discussion and Analysis of Findings
      23. Glossary
      24. Appendix
      25. Bibliography and References
      26. Index
      27. Using Diagrams and Visual Aids in Reports
      28. Use of Tables
      29. Index
      30. Use of Graphics in Reports
      31. How to Use Figures and Diagrams in Reports
      32. Summary
      33. Case: Survey Report for India Representative Office of HRC Business School, France
      34. Review Your Learning
      35. Reflect on Your Learning
      36. Apply Your Learning
      37. Self-check Your Learning
      38. Endnotes
    7. 15. Effective Presentations
      1. Introduction
      2. What is a Presentation?
      3. Essential Characteristics of a Good Presentation
      4. The Difference Between a Presentation and a Lecture
      5. The Difference Between a Presentation and a Written Report
      6. Preparing a Presentation
      7. Identify the Purpose of the Presentation
      8. Analyse the Audience and Identify Their Needs
      9. Design and Organize the Information
      10. Decide on the Medium of Presentation and Visual Aids
      11. Time the Presentation
      12. Become Familiar with the Location of the Presentation
      13. Delivering the Presentation
      14. Rehearsal
      15. Body Language
      16. Handling Questions and Debate
      17. Tips to Fight Stage Fright
      18. Summary
      19. Case: The Presentation Effect
      20. Review Your Learning
      21. Reflect on Your Learning
      22. Apply Your Learning
      23. Self-check Your Learning
    8. 16. Business Etiquette
      1. What is business Etiquette?
      2. Introductions
      3. Self-introductions
      4. Introducing Others
      5. Handshakes and Non-verbal Gestures
      6. Telephone/Cell Phone Etiquette
      7. Making a Call
      8. Common Telephone Courtesies
      9. Telephone Etiquette Observed by Administrative Assistants
      10. Telephone Precautions
      11. Business Dining
      12. The Host
      13. The Guest
      14. Table Manners
      15. Interaction with foreign Visitors
      16. Business manners IN different countries
      17. Americans
      18. Europeans
      19. The Japanese
      20. Arabs
      21. Indians
      22. Inter-organizational Etiquette
      23. Summary
      24. Case: Cultural Sensitivity
      25. Review Your Learning
      26. Reflect on Your Learning
      27. Apply Your Learning
      28. Self-check Your Learning
  5. PART III STRUCTURED APPLICATIONS
    1. 17. Communication for Effective Marketing
      1. Objectives of Marketing Communication
      2. Tools of Marketing Communication
      3. Some New Tools of Marketing Communication
      4. Direct Marketing
      5. Direct Selling
      6. Event Marketing
      7. Exhibit Marketing
      8. Consumer, Industrial, and Trade Marketing Communication
      9. Brand, Institutional, and Corporate Marketing Communication
      10. Marketing Communication Continuum
      11. Integrated Marketing Communications
      12. Summary
      13. Case: Celebrity Endorsement: Shaken or Stirred
      14. Review Your Learning
      15. Reflect on Your Learning
      16. Apply Your Learning
      17. Self-check Your Learning
      18. Endnotes
    2. 18. Communication for Effective Negotiations
      1. What is Negotiation?
      2. The Nature of Negotiation
      3. The Need for Negotiation
      4. Situations Requiring Negotiation
      5. Situations Not Requiring Negotiation
      6. Factors Affecting Negotiation
      7. Location
      8. Timing
      9. Subjective Factors
      10. Persuasive Skills and the Use of You-attitude
      11. Stages in the Negotiation Process
      12. The Preparation Phase
      13. The Negotiation Phase
      14. The Implementation Phase
      15. Negotiation Strategies
      16. Initial Strategies
      17. During the Discussion
      18. Reaching an Agreement
      19. Summarizing
      20. Deadlocks
      21. Summary
      22. Case: Farsighted Negotiation
      23. Review Your Learning
      24. Reflect on Your Learning
      25. Apply Your Learning
      26. Self-check Your Learning
      27. Endnotes
    3. 19. Communication for Conflict Managemen
      1. What is Conflict?
      2. Armed Conflict
      3. Characteristics of Conflict
      4. Dynamic Nature of Conflicts
      5. State of Tension
      6. Emotional Residue of Conflict
      7. Management of Conflict
      8. Negative Conflicts and Positive Conflicts
      9. Characteristics of Negative Conflicts
      10. Characteristics of Positive Conflicts
      11. Interpersonal Conflict as a General State in Modern Life
      12. Communication as a Bridge of Interpersonal Understanding
      13. Conflict Management Through Communication
      14. Management Skills
      15. Communication Skills
      16. Managing the Process of Communication in Conflict
      17. The S-TLC Strategy Conflict Management
      18. Purposive Communication in Conflict
      19. Verbal Skills for Communicating in Conflict
      20. Use of Personalized Language
      21. Conflict Over Intangible Issues
      22. Tangible Issues and Conflicts
      23. Trust Building
      24. Summary
      25. Case: MHAI
      26. Review Your Learning
      27. Reflect on Your Learning
      28. Apply Your Learning
      29. Self-check Your Learning
    4. 20. Communication for Employment
      1. Applying for Jobs
      2. Writing A CV
      3. The Relationship Between a Résumé and an Application Letter
      4. The Résumé of a Recent Graduate
      5. Heading
      6. Objective
      7. Education
      8. Work Experience
      9. Awards and Honours
      10. Activities
      11. References
      12. Summary
      13. Guidelines for Preparing a Good CV
      14. Suitable Organization
      15. Appropriate Length
      16. Drafting an application Letter
      17. The First Paragraph
      18. The Second Paragraph
      19. The Third Paragraph
      20. General Tips
      21. Interviews
      22. Types of Interviews
      23. What Does a Job Interview Assess?
      24. Focus of Job Interviews
      25. Strategies for Success at Interviews
      26. Answers to Some Common Interview Questions
      27. Participating in a Group Discussion
      28. Leadership
      29. GD Protocol
      30. Discussion Techniques
      31. Listening
      32. Summary
      33. Case: An Employment Interview
      34. Review Your Learning
      35. Reflect on Your Learning
      36. Apply Your Learning
      37. Self-check Your Learning
    5. 21. Written Analysis of Cases
      1. What is a Case?
      2. Characterstics of a Case and Its Analysis
      3. The Process of Case Analysis
      4. Step 1: Study the Case
      5. Step 2: Identify the Problem
      6. Step 3: Define the Problem
      7. Step 4: Identify the Causes of the Problem
      8. Step 5: Develop Alternative Solutions
      9. Step 6: Evaluate the Alternatives
      10. Step 7: Develop a Plan of Action
      11. Requirements for a Case Analysis
      12. Analysis of Communication Breakdown at City Hospital
      13. The Structure of a Written Case Analysis
      14. Summary
      15. Case: Accepting a Contract
      16. Review Your Learning
      17. Reflect on Your Learning
      18. Apply Your Learning
      19. Self-check Your Learning
    6. 22. Summer Project Report
      1. Introduction
      2. The Difference Between Summer Project Reports and Business/Technical Reports
      3. General Guidelines for Writing Summer Project Reports
      4. Objective
      5. Selection of a Problem
      6. The Role of Summer Project Mentors
      7. Writing the Project Proposal
      8. Components of the Summer Project Report
      9. Cover and Title Page
      10. Approval of Organization and Faculty Guides
      11. Abstract
      12. Acknowledgements
      13. Table of Contents
      14. List of Tables, Figures, Appendices, and Abbreviations
      15. Chapter I: Introduction
      16. Chapter II: Research Design
      17. Chapter III: Results and Conclusions
      18. Chapter IV: Recommendations
      19. References
      20. Appendices
      21. Project Presentation
      22. Summary
      23. Case: Executive Summary of a Consumer Behaviour Study
      24. Review Your Learning
      25. Reflect on Your Learning
      26. Apply Your Learning
      27. Self-check Your Learning
  6. Appendix 1: Grammar, Usage, and Style
  7. Appendix 2: The Process of Research
  8. Appendix 3: A Sample Report
  9. Index