Loudspeakers and headphones
Audio signals can only be produced to high standards if accurate monitoring is available, otherwise deficiencies go unnoticed and will not be rectified. The primary monitoring tool is the high-quality loudspeaker, but for practical reasons headphones may have to be used. This chapter considers the theory and practice of both.
6.1 Loudspeaker concepts
It is obvious that, like any piece of audio equipment, an ideal loudspeaker should produce a particle velocity proportional to the input waveform and so must have a wide, flat frequency response with no resonances and minimum linear and non-linear distortion. This, however, is only part of the design problem.
In all practical loudspeakers some form of diaphragm ...