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We’ve worked at highly successful software companies, with outstanding engineers, and the code we encounter still has plenty of room for improvement. In fact, we’ve seen some really ugly code, and you probably have too.

But when we see beautifully written code, it’s inspiring. Good code can teach you what’s going on very quickly. It’s fun to use, and it motivates you to make your own code better.

The goal of this book is help you make your code better. And when we say “code,” we literally mean the lines of code you are staring at in your editor. We’re not talking about the overall architecture of your project, or your choice of design patterns. Those are certainly important, but in our experience most of our day-to-day lives as programmers are spent on the “basic” stuff, like naming variables, writing loops, and attacking problems down at the function level. And a big part of this is reading and editing the code that’s already there. We hope you’ll find this book so helpful to your day-to-day programming that you’ll recommend it to everyone on your team.

What This Book Is About

This book is about how to write code that’s highly readable. The key idea in this book is that code should be easy to understand. Specifically, your goal should be to minimize the time it takes someone else to understand your code.

This book explains this idea and illustrates it with lots of examples from different languages, including C++, Python, JavaScript, and Java. We’ve avoided any advanced language features, so even if you don’t know all these languages, it should still be easy to follow along. (In our experience, the concepts of readability are mostly language-independent, anyhow.)

Each chapter dives into a different aspect of coding and how to make it “easy to understand.” The book is divided into four parts:

Surface-level improvements

Naming, commenting, and aesthetics—simple tips that apply to every line of your codebase

Simplifying loops and logic

Ways to refine the loops, logic, and variables in your program to make them easier to understand

Reorganizing your code

Higher-level ways to organize large blocks of code and attack problems at the function level

Selected topics

Applying “easy to understand” to testing and to a larger data structure coding example

How to Read This Book

Our book is intended to be a fun, casual read. We hope most readers will read the whole book in a week or two.

The chapters are ordered by “difficulty”: basic topics are at the beginning, and more advanced topics are at the end. However, each chapter is self-contained and can be read in isolation. So feel free to skip around if you’d like.

Using Code Examples

This book is here to help you get your job done. In general, you may use the code in this book in your programs and documentation. You do not need to contact us for permission unless you’re reproducing a significant portion of the code. For example, writing a program that uses several chunks of code from this book does not require permission. Selling or distributing a CD-ROM of examples from O’Reilly books does require permission. Answering a question by citing this book and quoting example code does not require permission. Incorporating a significant amount of example code from this book into your product’s documentation does require permission.

We appreciate, but do not require, attribution. An attribution usually includes the title, author, publisher, and ISBN. For example: “The Art of Readable Code by Dustin Boswell and Trevor Foucher. Copyright 2012 Dustin Boswell and Trevor Foucher, 978-0-596-80229-5.”

If you feel your use of code examples falls outside fair use or the permission given above, feel free to contact us at .

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We’d like to thank our colleagues who donated their time to review our entire manuscript, including Alan Davidson, Josh Ehrlich, Rob Konigsberg, Archie Russell, Gabe W., and Asaph Zemach. Any errors in the book are entirely their fault (just kidding).

We’re grateful to the many reviewers who gave us detailed feedback on various drafts of our book, including Michael Hunger, George Heineman, and Chuck Hudson.

We also got numerous ideas and feedback from John Blackburn, Tim Dasilva, Dennis Geels, Steve Gerding, Chris Harris, Josh Hyman, Joel Ingram, Erik Mavrinac, Greg Miller, Anatole Paine, and Nick White. Thanks to the numerous online commenters who reviewed our draft on O’Reilly’s OFPS system.

Thanks to the team at O’Reilly for their endless patience and support, specifically Mary Treseler (editor), Teresa Elsey (production editor), Nancy Kotary (copyeditor), Rob Romano (illustrator), Jessica Hosman (tools), and Abby Fox (tools). And also to our cartoonist, Dave Allred, who made our crazy cartoon ideas come to life.

Lastly, we’d like to thank Melissa and Suzanne, for encouraging us along the way and putting up with incessant programming conversations.

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