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Figure 9-1: The Queen of MaligneMaligne Canyon (pronounced Ma-leen) in Jasper National Park is inaccessible in the spring, summer, and autumn, as a powerful river scours the deeply cut limestone chasm. But in winter the river freezes, allowing access. At one location within the 180-foot deep canyon an underground seep hits the canyon wall just below the rim. As water runs down the inner canyon wall, it freezes, creating the enormous natural ice sculpture known as the Queen of Maligne.

Although the limestone walls are light gray, the contrast between the walls deep in the canyon and the icefall in a more open section is immense, requiring compensating ...

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