1950s US economist Harry Markowitz advocates gathering a portfolio of investments to protect against losses due to financial risk.
1990s Research on types of financial risk identifies ways of measuring and managing different kinds of risk, including market risk (changes in the value of equity, interest rates, currency, and commodities) and credit risk (the risk of nonpayment of debts).
1999 UK conglomerate General Electric Company (GEC) is renamed Marconi plc, and its traditional businesses are sold off. The directors’ gamble on this change in strategy fails—the business collapses in 2001 and shares are suspended. ...