Open innovation


1989 The Berlin Wall falls. Companies inside the former Iron Curtain must now respond to customer complaints.

2000 The travel website Trip Advisor, which enables users to rate hotels and restaurants, is founded by Stephen Kaufer.

2003 Organizational theorist Professor Henry Chesbrough publishes Open Innovation: the new imperative for creating and profiting from technology, which urges businesses to be open to learning from internal and external sources.

2009 US crowd-funding website Kickstarter is set up to encourage individual investment in small-scale business projects.

In the past, companies required their ...

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