RG

IN CONTEXT

FOCUS

Managing change

KEY DATES

1822 English mathematician Charles Babbage designs “the difference engine”—the world’s first mechanical, programmable, computer.

1951 The British food manufacturer J. Lyons & Co starts using LEO (Lyons Electronic Office), the first computer designed specifically for a business use—in this case, to track sales figures.

1981 US software company Microsoft develops the MS-DOS operating system.

1998 Banks and hedge funds in the US design computer programs to buy and sell shares, bonds derivatives, and other financial assets. This is the origin of high-frequency trading.

No business today can survive without some form ...

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