Competitive advantage


240 BCE The Romans capture a Carthaginian ship during a storm. They build new boats based on this design and defeat the Carthaginians at the Battle of Aegus.

1819 Scottish industrialist James Finlayson sets up a textile factory in Tampere, Finland. His production methods are modeled on those used by Lancashire’s world-class cotton mills.

1972 Ajax, the Dutch soccer team, wins the European Cup playing “total soccer,” which allows outfield players to take any position on the field. Spanish team FC Barcelona subsequently adopts the same strategy and goes on to achieve great success.

If the performance of a ...

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