Many engineering aspects of propagation do not need a knowledge of historically derived principles, but these do provide a good background. The following are the fundamental laws of electromagnetism.
Gauss’s electrostatic theorem: The normal component of electric displacement (flux), D, integrated over any closed surface equals the total charge, ρ, within the surface
Gauss’s magnetic theorem: The normal component of magnetic induction, B, integrated over any closed surface is 0.
Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction: The parallel component of an electric field, ...