Two Faces of Charisma: Socialized and Personalized Leadership in Organizations
Jane M. Howell
As several chapter authors have discussed, charismatic and transformational leadership have recently emerged as important concepts among organizational leadership scholars. Political scientist James MacGregor Burns (1978) initiated the distinction between exchange-oriented transactional leaders, who reward followers for reaching established objectives, and transformational leaders, who inspire followers to transcend their immediate self-interests for superordinate goals. In their best-selling book, In Search of Excellence, Peters and Waterman (1982) observe that at some point in the histories of successfully managed companies transformational leaders ...