1. Real-Time Systems – Setting the Scene

40 years ago, software development was widely seen as consisting of only programming. And it was regarded more as an art than a science (and certainly not as an engineering discipline). Perhaps that's why this period is associated with so many gloomy tales of project failure. Well, the industry has matured. Along the way, we had new languages, real design methods, and, in 1968, the distinction between computer science and software engineering.

The microprocessor arrived circa 1970 and set a revolution in motion. However, experienced software developers played little part in this. For, until the late 1970s, most developers of microcomputer software were electronic, electrical, or control engineers. ...

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