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The Design and Implementation of the 4.4BSD Operating System by John S. Quarterman - Texas Internet Consulting, Michael J. Karels - Berkeley Software Design, Inc., Keith Bostic - Berkeley Software Design, Inc., Marshall Kirk McKusick - Consultant

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Chapter 5Memory Management

5.1 Terminology

A central component of any operating system is the memory-management system. As the name implies, memory-management facilities are responsible for the management of memory resources available on a machine. These resources are typically layered in a hierarchical fashion, with memory-access times inversely related to their proximity to the CPU (see Fig. 5.1). The primary memory system is main memory; the next level of storage is secondary storage or backing storage. Main-memory systems usually are constructed from random-access memories, whereas secondary stores are placed on moving-head disk drives. In certain workstation environments, the common two-level hierarchy is becoming a three-level hierarchy, ...

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