How Loudspeakers Work
This chapter is not in any way a guide to how to design loudspeakers, nor is it a complete explanation of how they work; what it does do is look at their functioning from the point of view of the crossover designer. The specific topic of time-aligning the drive units is dealt with in Chapter 10 on delay compensation.
There are many ways to make a loudspeaker. Some of the less common types are electrostatics, ribbon loudspeakers, electromagnetic planar loudspeakers, Heil air-motion transformers, and the rather worrying Ionophone, but here I must concentrate on the most popular concepts: sealed boxes, ported reflex boxes, ABR systems, transmission line loudspeakers, and horns.
2.1 Sealed-Box Loudspeakers
A sealed ...