8    The Geographic Diversification Strategy

The Rise of Italian and Spanish Multinational Companies?

8.1 NOT ONLY PRODUCT DIVERSIFICATION . . .

International activities undertaken by companies in a variety of ways have represented an important driver for economic growth since the final decades of the nineteenth century. Knowledge, technologies, products and capital from abroad played a very important role in enabling the industrial takeoff in several latecomer nations. At the same time, the existence of markets and/or a labor force and/or raw materials outside national borders was often crucial for the growth strategies of the large corporations in the most advanced nations (Wilkins 1970 1974; Franko 1976; Jones 2005). Alfred Chandler was ...

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