For scientists working on ridding the world of HIV and AIDS, the past 30 years of the disease have been fraught with many failures and frustratingly slow discovery. Part of the challenge of curing HIV has been unmasking the virus itself, particularly understanding how it replicates and spreads within a host. The focus of researchers has therefore zeroed in on proteins—the so-called workhorses of our cells. The proteins in HIV—just like those in healthy cells—perform essential functions such as delivering nutrition, regulating key chemicals, and triggering replication. The hope is to develop therapies that can target and attack the virus on this level—stopping replication. Scientists also believe similar approaches ...

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