Approaches to Quality
Traditional quality programs for the most of the twentieth century were focused on the command and control aspects inherent to the functional hierarchy organizational structure. The efforts of Taylor to both standardize and simplify work at least made this possible, if not enforced its legitimacy. In the aftermath of WWII, American business had extended control backward to the sources of supply and forward to the distribution and merchandising. To the extent that organizations succeeded in this endeavor, they reduced uncertainty in their environments and gained control over critical elements of their business.