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The Handbook of Knowledge-Based Coaching: FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE by Diane Brennan, Leni Wildflower

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chapter SIX

Theories of Intelligence

Jonathan Passmore, Chloé Tong, and Leni Wildflower

From its beginnings in 1904, when psychologist Alfred Binet was asked by the French government to find a way of distinguishing between children who could benefit from regular public education and children who would need additional help, the concept of a singular numerical measure of intelligence has lent itself to simplistic interpretation and discriminatory uses. In spite of Binet’s warnings, the Binet Scale and the concept of a general mental ability were taken up by psychologists and educators in America and around the world. Further tests were developed to determine an individual’s intelligence quotient, or IQ.

Later theorists added more complexity. ...

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