What species you photograph, and what kind of circumstances you need to prepare for, are greatly influenced by the time of year.

Probably everywhere in the world, the time of year has an influence on what bird species you can photograph and what the circumstances are. As a rule, high season in the northern hemisphere is during the lighter months from March or April to October, whereas in the southern hemisphere there is more to photograph from November to March. This doesn’t mean that you can’t photograph birds outside the high seasons—on the contrary, annual migrations and winter can be the best times to photograph certain species.

In this chapter, I focus on opportunities in Finland in all four seasons. Finland ...

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