The Persian Empire
7th century bce The Medes establish a powerful kingdom in modern-day Iran.
c.550 bce Cyrus the Great rebels against Median rule and founds the Achaemenid Persian Empire.
c.499 bce Greek city-states rebel against Persian control, but their revolt fails.
431 bce Athens and Sparta clash for supremacy in Greece in the Peloponnesian War.
404 bce Artaxerxes II becomes ruler of the Achaemenid Empire.
331 bce Alexander the Great defeats Darius III and conquers the Persian Empire.
312 bce Persia becomes part of the Seleucid Empire, founded by one of Alexander’s generals.
Leonidas of Sparta stood before his band of 300 ...