449 bce The end of the Persian Wars leaves Persia in control of Greek kingdoms in Asia Minor.
359 bce Philip II of Macedon begins his rise to power and develops innovative military technology and tactics.
338 bce Philip II defeats the Greek states and becomes undisputed leader of Greece.
321 bce After Alexander’s death, squabbling between his generals breaks out into widespread civil war.
278 bce Alexander’s generals establish three Hellenistic kingdoms in Greece, the Middle East, and Europe.
30 bce Emperor Octavian annexes Egypt, the last Hellenistic kingdom, for Rome.
In one of the fastest and most daring ...