Islamic society and science
711 A Muslim Arab and Berber army conquers the Visigothic Kingdom of Spain.
756 Umayyad prince Abd ar-Rahman I establishes a court at Cordoba in Spain.
800 The first Islamic hospital is established in Baghdad.
825 Al-Khwarizmi introduces decimal notation (derived from India) to the Islamic world.
1138–54 Al-Idrisi compiles a world map for Roger II of Sicily.
1258 The sack of Baghdad marks the end of the Abbasid caliphate.
1259 An astronomical observatory is founded at Maragha.
In 762 the second ruler of the newly ascendant Abbasid dynasty moved the capital of the powerful Islamic Caliphate from Damascus ...