722 Pelagius defeats Muslims in Asturias, northern Spain.
1031 End of the centralized Umayyad caliphate of Córdoba. Muslim al-Andalus breaks up into several small emirates.
1212 Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, in which the Christians defeat the Almohad caliph.
1248 Ferdinand III of Castile defeats Muslims at Seville.
1492 Ferdinand and Isabella decree the expulsion of all Jews from Castile and Aragón.
1497 Spanish seize Melilla on the coast of North Africa.
1502 All remaining Muslims expelled from Spain.
1568–71 Muslim converts to Christianity rise up against repressive Christian rule in the Revolt of the Alpujarras. ...