The Wars of Religion


1562 The French Wars of Religion begin a 36-year period of conflict in France.

1566 The sack of the monastery at Steenvoorde, Flanders, leads to the Dutch Revolt.


1631 Gustavus Adolphus’ victory at Breitenfeld protects German states from forcible reconversion to Catholicism.

1648 The Peace of Westphalia, a series of peace treaties, ends the Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Eighty Years’ War (1568–1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic.

1685 Revocation of the Edict of Nantes leads to renewed persecution of French Protestants.

In May 1618, a group of Protestant leaders in ...

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