English Civil War
1639 English and Scottish forces clash in the first “Bishops’ War.”
1642 The Civil War begins at Edgehill, Warwickshire.
1645 Oliver Cromwell’s “New Model Army” scores victories at Naseby and Langport.
1646 Charles is forced to surrender to his opponents.
1649 The Commonwealth of England (a republic) is formed.
1653 Cromwell takes the title Lord Protector for Life, giving him the power to call or dissolve parliaments.
1658 Cromwell dies and is succeeded as Protector by his son, Richard.
1660 The monarchy is restored: Charles II becomes King of England.
During the 1640s, England was plunged into a series of wars, ...