Latin American independence
1807–08 Napoleonic invasion of Iberia leads to governmental crisis in the Iberian colonies of South America.
1819 Spain is expelled from its former province of New Granada, and the Republic of Colombia is declared.
1822 Portugal assents to Brazil becoming a constitutional monarchy under Pedro I.
1824 The Spanish capitulate in Peru, and their New World empire ends.
1830 Break up of the Republic of Colombia. Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela emerge as independent states.
The establishment in 1819 of the Republic of Colombia, or Gran Colombia as it came to be known, by Simón Bolívar, the self-styled ...