Labor movements, socialism, and revolution
1814–15 The Congress of Vienna restores the French monarchy.
1830 Charles X of France is overthrown. Greece obtains its independence from the Ottoman Empire.
1834 An uprising of French silk-weavers is suppressed.
1852 The Second French Republic, established in 1848, is dissolved. Louis-Napoleon is proclaimed Napoleon III.
1861 Victor Emmanuel II is declared king of a united Italy.
1870–71 The Franco-Prussian War ends with the unification of Germany under Prussia. The Paris Commune is overthrown, and a Third Republic declared.
On February 24, 1848, Louis-Philippe of France, the “Citizen ...