1853 A US naval force arrives in Japan and demands trading links.
1854–55 The US, Britain, the Netherlands, and Russia force trading treaties on Japan.
1866 The rulers of the Choshu and Satsuma regions form a secret alliance against the ruling Tokugawa shogunate.
1867 The Tokugawa shogunate ends.
1868–69 Defenders of the shogunate are defeated.
1871 Feudalism is abolished, and Japan launches a far-reaching program of reform.
1894–95 The Sino-Japanese War underlines expansionist Japanese aims in the region.
1904–05 The Russo-Japanese War ends in Japanese victory.
The overthrow in 1868 of the Tokugawa shogunate, ...