The “scramble for Africa”


1830 France begins occupation of Algeria.

1853–56 David Livingstone crosses Central Africa.

1862 John Speke discovers the source of the Nile.

1879 H. M. Stanley is hired by Leopold II to survey the Congo.

1882 Britain takes over nominally Ottoman-ruled Egypt.


1886–94 German territories in East Africa are established.

1890 The Anglo-French Convention grants France control of the Sahara.

1891–93 Cecil Rhodes brings Southern and Northern Rhodesia under British rule.

1899–1902 Boer War sees Britain wrest control of Orange Free State and Transvaal.

The Berlin Conference did not precipitate the sudden European ...

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