Modernizing Turkey


1798 French invasion of Egypt, which leads to the Ottoman loss of the country in 1805.

1830 Greece’s independence signals the loss of the first Ottoman Balkan territories. France begins its conquest of Algeria.


1912–13 Ottoman Turkey suffers humiliating defeats in the Balkan Wars.

1914 Ottoman Turkey enters World War I on Germany’s side.

1920 Mustafa Kemal leads a revolt against the punitive Treaty of Sèvres imposed on the Ottoman government after defeat in World War I.

1923 The Treaty of Lausanne confirms the borders of modern Turkey; Kemal launches a modernization program.

The Young Turk Revolution of July ...

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