End of empires


1885 The Indian National Congress (INC) is founded and campaigns for Indian rights.

1901 Australian colonies are united to form the Commonwealth of Australia.

1921 The Irish Free State (four-fifths of Ireland) gains independence from Britain.

1922 Egypt is given limited independence by Britain, but British troops remain to protect imperial interests.


1947 The Commonwealth of Nations is formed—all former British colonies can take part.

1960 The Declaration of Decolonization asserts the rights of all peoples to self-determination.

For more than a century, India had been the crown jewel of the British Empire, but ...

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