Collapse of communism


August 1989 After 45 years, Poland sees the end of communist rule. Solidarity, a trade union, forms a new non-communist government.

August 23, 1989 Two million people form a human chain across Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia in protest at Soviet rule.

September 11, 1989 Hungary opens its border with Austria to allow the departure of East German refugees.


December 3, 1989 The US and USSR jointly declare that the Cold War has ended.

October 3, 1990 Germany is reunified.

December 1991 The Soviet Union disintegrates into 15 separate states.

For decades, the Berlin Wall, which separated East and West Berlin, stood ...

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