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The Humongous Book of Statistics Problems by W. Michael Kelley, Robert Donnelly

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Chapter 4
INTRODUCTION TO PROBABILITY
What are the chances?
This chapter explores the foundational concepts of probability, the measurement of uncertainty reached through statistical analysis. Probability and statistics are inexorably tied together mathematically, as many of the theorems in subsequent chapters are based at least in part in probability.
This chapter starts with the basics of probability, defining sample space, events, and outcomes. You’ll progress through important concepts like the addition rules (and the multiplication rule) for probability, as well as conditional probability and Bayes’ Theorem. If you’ve ever wondered what the odds were of pulling a certain card from a standard deck, this is the chapter for you.

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